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ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 11, NUMÉRO 9, SEPTEMBRE 2016

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

Evolution in Board Chair–CEO Relationships: A Negotiated Order Perspective

A Fair Trade-off? Paradoxes in the Governance of Fair-trade Social Enterprises

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

A Case Study of Microfinance and Community Development Banks in Brazil: Private or Common Goods?

Responsible Investing of Pension Assets: Links between Framing and Practices for Evaluation

Social Enterprise and Wellbeing in Community Life

La utilidad del excedente para el análisis de la información financiera en las sociedades cooperativas

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

Understanding Nonprofit Financial Health: Exploring the Effects of Organizational and Environmental Variables

Gestion

Management / Gestión

La gestion des associations

An Institutional Theory of the Nonprofit: Toll Goods and Voluntary Action

An Exemplar of Open Strategy: Decision-Making within Multi-sector Collaborations

Contextualizing a Social Enterprise Opportunity Process in an Emerging Market

Growth Orientation in Social Enterprises

Social Entrepreneurship: The Foundation of Tomorrow's Commercial Business Models?

Nonprofit Management: A Social Justice Approach 1st Edition

A Conceptual Model of Critical Success Factors for Indian Social Enterprises

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Knowledge-Based Social Innovation Process in Social Enterprise: A Conceptual Framework

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

Infrastructures for Disorder. Applying Sennett’s Notion of Disorder to the Public Space of Social Housing Neighbourhoods

What Big Data Can Tell Us About Government Awards to the Nonprofit Sector: Using the FAADS

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

The Winding Road of Social Entrepreneurship Definitions: A Systematic Literature Review

Autres

Other / Otros

Comparing Nonprofit Sectors Around the World: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?

Teaching Strategic Management to Nonprofit Students

Elinor Ostrom’s Contribution to Nonprofit and Voluntary Action Studies

Numéro spécial

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Elinor Ostrom’s Contribution to Nonprofit and Voluntary Action Studies

Varia

Making Politics Work for Development: Harnessing Transparency and Citizen Engagement

Économie sociale et développement des territoires

Les nouvelles pratiques de financement en économie sociale

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions / Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

Evolution in Board Chair–CEO Relationships: A Negotiated Order Perspective

Chris Cornforth and Rob Macmillan. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 5, pages  949-970, October 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/5/949?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:The relationship between chairs and chief executive officers (CEOs) has been largely neglected in research on nonprofit governance. Yet, a growing body of research on corporate governance in the private and public sectors suggests that this relationship is crucial both to the effective functioning of the board and the leadership of the organization. Much of the research on chair–CEO relationships has used cross-sectional research designs ignoring the fact that these relationships will evolve over time. This article responds to some of these challenges. It presents the results from longitudinal research examining the relationship between the chair and chief executive in a nonprofit organization. It shows how this relationship is “negotiated” and develops over time in response to contextual changes.”

 

A Fair Trade-off? Paradoxes in the Governance of Fair-trade Social Enterprises

Chris Mason and Bob Doherty. Journal of Business Ethics, volume 136, issue 3, pages 451-469, July 2016.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s105
51-014-2511-2?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:This paper explores how fair trade social enterprises (FTSEs) manage paradoxes in stakeholder-oriented governance models. We use narrative accounts from board members, at governance events and board documents to report an exploratory study of paradoxes in three FTSEs which are partly farmer-owned. Having synthesized the key social enterprise governance literature and framed it alongside the broader paradox theory, we used narratives to explore how tensions are articulated, how they can be applied within an adapted paradox framework, and how governance actors seek to mitigate paradoxes. The paper contributes to current debates in social enterprise scholarship concerning hybridity (Pache and Santos, Acad Manag Rev 35(3):455–476, 2010; in Institutional logics in action, Part B (Research in the sociology of organizations), 2012), hybrid organizing (Battilana and Lee, Acad Manag Ann 8(1):397–441, 2014) and operational tensions (Smith et al., Bus Eth Q 23(3):407–442, 2013) by illustrating empirically how the central social/enterprise paradox manifests in FTSEs governance arrangements. We build on the paradox categories proposed by Lüscher and Lewis (Acad Manag J 51(2):221–240, 2008) and adapted in Smith et al. (Bus Eth Q 23(3):407–442, 2013) by developing a recursive model of legitimacy-seeking governance processes, conceptualizing how boards seek to mitigate, but not necessarily resolve, paradoxes.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

A Case Study of Microfinance and Community Development Banks in Brazil: Private or Common Goods?

Marek Hudon et Camille Meyer. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 4, pages 116S-133S, August 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/4_suppl/116S.abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Inclusive financial sectors are essential to poverty alleviation. While microcredit can be governed as a private good, self-managed civil society organizations propose an alternative way of managing financial services. Brazil’s Community Development Banks (CDBs) are growing and dynamic manifestations of these nonprofit organizations. Based on field research in Brazil, this article uses Elinor Ostrom’s design principles of successful self-governing common-pool resource organizations to analyze CDBs’ microcredit system. Our results suggest that private goods could be altered when they are governed by community self-managed enterprises. They become hybrid goods as they mix the characteristics of private and common goods. This change is facilitated by specific organizational arrangements such as self-governance that emerge from grassroots dynamics and the creation of collective-choice arenas. These arrangements help strengthen the inclusion properties of nonprofit microcredit services.”

 

Responsible Investing of Pension Assets: Links between Framing and Practices for Evaluation

Darlene Himick and Sophie Audousset-Coulier. Journal of Business Ethics, volume 136, issue 3, pages 539-556, July 2016.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s1055
1-014-2530-z?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Despite the increase in the acceptance of responsible investing (RI) in general (Allianz, in www.​allianzglobalinv​estors.​com, 2010), the global community is still witnessing unprecedented levels of practices that can only be categorized as “unsustainable”. It appears, then, that either the inroads made by the RI community have not kept up with the increase in unsustainable practices, or, that the RI process itself has been ineffective at producing meaningful change. The current study aims to investigate the practices used by pension plan sponsors to determine how they may enable, or interfere with, the adoption of implementation of RI. We adopt Framing Theory (Benford and Snow, Annual Review of Sociology 26:611–639, 2000), specifically the idea that particular frames find alignment when they resonate with their targets, by either bridging, extending, amplifying or transforming a domain. We extend research to include understudied practices by performing an analysis of 60 public pension funds in Canada. We find evidence of disconnect between the financial frame which dominates practices for compliance and evaluation, and the social frame of RI as a source of change. If the aim of RI is to produce long-term change, then a consideration of whether it aligns with extant practices is critical. We discover a variety of frame alignment tactics already employed in practice. We also find that, even within the dominant financial frame, opportunities for frame extension, amplification and transformation do exist, and examine how these are more (or less) possible depending on how the asset management structure is designed.”

 

Social Enterprise and Wellbeing in Community Life

Jane Farmer, Tracy De Cotta, Katharine McKinnon, Jo Barraket, Sarah-Anne Munoz, Heather Douglas and Michael J. Roy. Social enterprise journal, volume 12, issue 2, pages 235 - 254, August 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/
10.1108/SEJ-05-2016-0017
 

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:This paper aims to explore the well-being impacts of social enterprise, beyond a social enterprise per se, in everyday community life. An exploratory case study was used. The study’s underpinning theory is from relational geography, including Spaces of Wellbeing Theory and therapeutic assemblage. These theories underpin data collection methods. Nine social enterprise participants were engaged in mental mapping and walking interviews. Four other informants with “boundary-spanning” roles involving knowledge of the social enterprise and the community were interviewed. Data were managed using NVivo, and analysed thematically. Well-being realised from “being inside” a social enterprise organisation was further developed for participants, in the community, through positive interactions with people, material objects, stories and performances of well-being that occurred in everyday community life. Boundary spanning community members had roles in referring participants to social enterprise, mediating between participants and structures of community life and normalising social enterprise in the community. They also gained benefit from social enterprise involvement. This paper uses relational geography and aligned methods to reveal the intricate connections between social enterprise and well-being realisation in community life. There is potential to pursue this research on a larger scale to provide needed evidence about how well-being is realised in social enterprises and then extends into communities.”

 

La utilidad del excedente para el análisis de la información financiera en las sociedades cooperativas

María José Cabaleiro Casal, Carlos Iglesias Malvido. REVESCO. Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, volumen 122, July 2016.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/REVE.52985.

Resumen proveniente del artículo: Este trabajo analiza una muestra de sociedades cooperativas gallegas para verificar si es posible inferir diferencias en las conductas financieras de los socios a partir de la cuantía del excedente contable. Con esta finalidad se añade al valor del excedente, el resultado de las variaciones registradas en determinadas partidas contables que incluyen otras rentas residuales. El reparto de dichas rentas revela que los socios no optan generalizadamente por la anticipación completa de las rentas residuales. Se deduce, por tanto, la existencia de empresas que escogen una estrategia de excedente positivo, diferente de la estrategia de excedente nulo planteada por la teoría financiera clásica. En la muestra seleccionada, las diferencias entre ambas estrategias son estadísticamente significativas, lo que abre la puerta, en futuros trabajos, a investigar qué factores pueden explicar la renuncia voluntaria de los socios a la percepción anticipada de todas estas rentas residuales. Tal conducta sólo se evidencia cuando se declara un resultado positivo, de ahí la utilidad del excedente contable en el análisis de la información financiera de la sociedad cooperativa.”

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

Understanding Nonprofit Financial Health: Exploring the Effects of Organizational and Environmental Variables

Christopher R. Prentice. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 5, pages 888-909, October 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/5/888?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Using Internal Revenue Service Form 990 information for all filing 501(c)(3) organizations from 1998 to 2003, this article explores the organizational and environmental factors that affect nonprofit financial health in two subsectors—human services and higher education. The results yield three noteworthy findings. First, theory and empirical data converge when four commonly used financial indicators are combined to form a single financial health construct. Second, accounting measures and revenue variables are not as clearly related to financial health as the literature suggests. Third, environmental variables including macroeconomic factors (gross domestic product and state product), community factors (median household income), as well as a nonprofit’s financial prominence in their policy area (revenue share) are strong predictors of nonprofit financial health. This research contributes to the literature in several ways, most notably by incorporating a more open-systems approach to the study of nonprofit financial health with the inclusion of several environmental variables.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

La gestion des associations

Julien Bernet, Philippe Eynauld, Olivier Maurel et Corinne Vercher- Chaptal. Édition Érès, collection sociologie économique, 224 pages, avril 2016.

http://www.editions-eres.com/ouvrage
/3787/la-gestion-des-associations

Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : « Dans le prolongement de la gouvernance des associations (érès), cet ouvrage ouvre un espace de réflexion et de débat plus que nécessaire étant donné l’ampleur des mutations que connaissent les associations. A partir d’études de cas approfondies menées dans différents milieux, il révèle les limites d’une gestion formelle héritée de la gestion d’entreprise. En effet, le rôle des associations dans la société invite à s’interroger sur la production de sens et donc autant sur le pourquoi que sur le comment. Les auteurs plaident pour une gestion plurielle des associations dont les caractéristiques ne sont ni celles du service public, ni celles du secteur marchand. Ils proposent trois clés d’entrée pour l’orienter : le projet, l’organisation et l’action. Cette grille de lecture de la vie associative  ouvre des voies possibles pour comprendre, agir et mettre en cohérence son fonctionnement avec les valeurs du projet associatif. Au-delà des associations, les questions posées par les auteurs renvoient au périmètre plus large de l’économie sociale et solidaire. »

 

An Institutional Theory of the Nonprofit: Toll Goods and Voluntary Action

Eva M. Witesman. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 4, pages 97S-115S, August 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/early/2016
/05/25/0899764016651729.abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:The evolution of activity within the nonprofit sector (and nonprofit-type activity without the sector) has outpaced the ability of nonprofit theory to describe it. In contrast to legalistic, sector-based theories of the nonprofit, this article proposes an institutional theory of the nonprofit that defines its distinction from public and private institutions through (a) the voluntary (rather than coercive) assignment of roles and (b) the use of the good or service by non-payers. The voluntary and redistributive nature of such nonprofit-type institutions makes them primarily compatible with the distribution of goods that are non-subtractable and excludable (toll goods).”

 

An Exemplar of Open Strategy: Decision-Making within Multi-sector Collaborations

Thomas G. Pittz and Terry Adler. Management Decision, volume 54, issue 7, pages 1595-1614, August 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full
/10.1108/MD-04-2015-0153

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Collaborations and partnerships that span economic sectors heighten the complexity of decision-making processes and introduce challenges for structuring collective action. As hybrid organizations designed for cooperation, multi-sector partnerships involving firms from the private, public, and nonprofit industries are more likely to utilize a platform of open strategy than their single-sector counterparts. Through studying the decision-making process of multi-sector partnerships, the purpose of this paper is to suggest that the formative extra-organizational boundary conditions of these partnerships create fertile ground for a platform of open strategy. This manuscript presents a thorough analysis of the literature regarding multi-sector partnerships and the construct of open strategy to consider the importance of goal interdependence and strategic openness in the strategic decision-making process. The combination of these research streams results in a theoretical model of open strategy to be validated in the multi-sector partnership context.”

 

Contextualizing a Social Enterprise Opportunity Process in an Emerging Market

Monica Diochon and Yogesh Ghore. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 2, pages 107-130, August 2016.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
full/10.1108/SEJ-11-2015-0032

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how a social enterprise opportunity is brought to fruition in an emerging market. This real-time longitudinal case study tracks the emergence of a micro-franchise start-up from conception to inception. Using a narrative perspective as a conceptual lens focuses attention on the relational, temporal and performative elements of the interactive process that occurs between social entrepreneur(s) and the environment(s). While interviewing provides the primary source of evidence, multiple data collection methods were utilized. The analysis of the process elements centres on the narratives of the micro-franchise co-founders and other key informants that prompt action aimed at bringing the opportunity to fruition, showing how the social entrepreneurs bring the inside out and the outside in. Despite challenges to the appropriateness of Western management theory within emerging markets, this study has shown that theory at a sufficiently high level of abstraction can be useful. It also demonstrates the need to study process over time and be inclusive of the range of stakeholders and contexts that influence it. The findings indicate that social enterprise start-up is a co-creative process that evolves in unpredictable ways over time. Beyond start-up, only time and further study will determine whether social enterprise will prove to be the panacea for poverty and marginalization that governments expect. This research gains real-time insight into social enterprise emergence. It underscores the multi-dimensional nature of context and provides evidence indicating that the relationship and influence between social entrepreneur(s) and their environment is not one way.”

 

Growth Orientation in Social Enterprises  

Saila Tykkylainen, Pasi Syrjä, Kaisu Puumalainen and Helena Sjögrén. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, volume 8, issue 3, pages 296–316, August 2016.

http://www.inderscienceonline.com/
doi/abs/10.1504/IJEV.2016.078966

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This study explores growth orientation in the social entrepreneurship context through in-depth case studies in six Finnish social enterprises. In light of existing research on business growth and scaling up social enterprises and our data, we propose that willingness to grow is fairly strong among social entrepreneurs, and that growth is sought through various strong and intentional strategies. Growth orientation stems primarily from the entrepreneurs' social mission, but at the same time, the mission appears to narrow down options for growth paths. However, tensions between financial and social goals, often discussed in the social enterprise literature, did not appear as a form of conflict. Our study suggests that the social mission can be both a driver and a barrier of growth for social enterprises.”

 

Social Entrepreneurship: The Foundation of Tomorrow's Commercial Business Models?

Jantje Halberstadt and Sascha Kraus. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, volume 8, issue pages 261–279, August 2016.

http://www.inderscienceonline.com/
doi/abs/10.1504/IJEV.2016.078964

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Social and commercial entrepreneurship are often said to be two contrasting disciplines that are, at best, only tenuously related. Even though there is a lack of consensus on how to define both social and commercial entrepreneurship, most definitions of social entrepreneurship commonly state that solving social problems demands a narrow, specialised focus, whilst commercial entrepreneurship is often seen as a more conventionally 'business'-like activity. In this article, we put forward our arguments using theoretical discussion backed up by practical case studies to show that many of today's commercial business models are based on ideas with a social intention. Our findings on the economic importance of innovative social business ideas highlight the importance of social entrepreneurship, and the importance of encouraging social aspects in teaching, practical entrepreneurship support and research. In fact, we even find that social and commercial entrepreneurship are highly interrelated phenomena, which should not be treated as separate disciplines.”

 

Nonprofit Management: A Social Justice Approach 1st Edition

Elaine P. Congress, Allan Luks and Francis Petit.  Springer Publishing Company, 1 edition, 331 pages, August 2016.

http://www.springerpub.com/nonprofit-management.html

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Nonprofit organizations are increasingly concerned with the need to demonstrate how social justice principles impact every aspect of their work. This is the only textbook to explicitly integrate social justice principles into the management of a nonprofit organization. It provides students with the knowledge and skills required to integrate a social justice value system into their work as effective nonprofit leaders. Using practical tips and illustrative case examples, the text explains the structure and processes of nonprofit organizations with a particular emphasis on social justice themes. Nonprofit Management: A Social Justice Approach is edited by an interdisciplinary team of prominent leaders in business, management, and social service, who together run the Fordham Center for Nonprofit Leaders. They have assembled a group of expert authors who provide extensive coverage of the nonprofit leadership field. The book discusses the history of the development of nonprofit management up to the present day. It addresses legal and ethical considerations, organizational planning and staff management, finance, public relations, fundraising, public advocacy and volunteerism, program design and grant development, governance and board development, developing an international nonprofit, information technology, career development, and creating a nonprofit/social entrepreneurship organization. Additional chapters address quality improvement, mentoring, and proposal writing. The text is ideal for students and faculty in social service administration, human service leadership, social work management, public and community health, public administration, and health care administration and management.”

 

A Conceptual Model of Critical Success Factors for Indian Social Enterprises

Satar Mir Shahid and John Shibu. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, volume 12, issue 2, pages 113-138, August 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.
1108/WJEMSD-09-2015-0042?journalCode=wjemsd

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:There has been global upsurges in the social enterprise (SE) research and practice considering SE as a rapidly growing thought worldwide. The renewed significance of SEs has arisen primarily on account of their assumed potential in solving a range of social problems. The evidences supporting the budding role of SEs in fostering sustained socio-economic development of regions and communities across the globe are evolving continuously. Even though, social entrepreneurship (S-ENT) and SEs have remained central thought provoking domains in the realm of scholarly investigation for the past couple of decades, the emerging literature on SEs and their role in economic development is riddled with theoretical inconsistencies and definitional controversies. Thus, very little is known about functioning and management of SEs. For the sake of advancing the field, the purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the critical success factors (CSFs) of SEs operating in different social settings in India. Further, a conceptual model is developed incorporating different factors of SE operation in an integrated framework. Based on the review of the extant literature, three categories of success factors comprising a total of 38 success factors for SEs were initially identified. Under each category, the success factors were then classified and reduced to appropriate numbers based upon their importance to SEs and their repeated manifestations in the literature, making a total of 13 CSFs under all three categories. Based on these three categories of CSFs, a conceptual model was developed. The study determines 13 critical factors as contributing to the success of SEs: business planning skills; entrepreneurship orientation; leadership; networking; innovative financing; triple bottom line planning; SE marketing; community engagement; human capital; organizational culture; social impact evaluation; frugal innovation; and government support. The paper presents a theoretical research model incorporating factors and determinants of SE success to direct a future research agenda. The paper can further be used by researchers to empirically test CSF of SEs. Moreover, practitioners can also gain benefits from the conceptual framework and promote S-ENT.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Knowledge-Based Social Innovation Process in Social Enterprise: A Conceptual Framework

Hendrati Dwi Mulyaningsih,Gatot Yudoko and Bambang Rudito. Advanced Science Letters, volume 22, issue 5-6, pages 1393-1397, May 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/asl
/2016/00000022/F0020005/art00069

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:A formal theory in social entrepreneurship research is required for developing a conceptual framework. Hence, theoretical contributions in the research theme, including social enterprise and social innovation, are currently limited and at an infancy stage. Besides, conceptual contribution in theory building that explains a relational connection between constructs has been less underlined. I