ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 5, NUMÉRO 96, SEPTEMBRE 2014

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

Cooperative Housing and Social Cohesion: The Role of Linking Social Capital

Does the Effectiveness of Board of Directors Affect Firm Performance of Consumer Co-Operatives? The Case of iCOOP Korea

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

The Role and Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs in Contemporary Rural Cooperative Development in China: Case Studies of Rural Social Entrepreneurship

Looking for Friends, Fans, and Followers? Social Media Use in Public and Nonprofit Human Services

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

L’évaluation financière des coopératives modernes

Assessing the Performance of Co-operatives in Malaysia: an Analysis of Co-operative Groups using a Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Gestion

Management / Gestión

Do Stakeholder Expectations Shape Organizational Intellectual Capital Reports?

Learning-by-doing as an Approach to Teaching Social Entrepreneurship

Enriching Work Environment in the Welfare Service Sector: the Case of Social Enterprises in Swedish Childcare

Antecedents to Market Orientation in the Worker Cooperative Organization: the Mondragon Group

Social Enterprises and the Performance Advantages of a Vincentian Marketing Orientation

Pay Dissatisfaction and Intention to Leave

Co-located Nonprofit Centers

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

Governmental Influences on the Evolution of Agricultural Cooperatives in Vietnam: an Institutional Perspective with Case Studies

L’élaboration d’un cadre juridique européen de l’entrepreneuriat social à l’épreuve des obstacles juridiques, fiscaux et administratifs nationaux

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

The Long March of Chinese Co-operatives: Towards Market Economy, Participation and Sustainable Development

Community and Cooperation : the Evolution of Cooperatives Towards New Models of Citizens’ Democratic Participation in Public Services Provision

AUTRES

Other / Otros

Reframing the “Irish Question”: the Role of the Irish Co-Operative Movement in the Formation of Irish Nationalism, 1900–22

Functions of Dysfunction. Managing the Dynamics of an Organizational Duality in a Natural Food Cooperative

Landscape Conservation Cooperatives: Building a Network to Help Fulfill Public Trust Obligations

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Policy Arena: Rethinking Rural Co-Operatives in Development

Worker Cooperatives as an Organizational Alternative

Building Theory in Social Entrepreneurship

VARIA

Économie sociale et Europe : quel(s) dialogue(s) ?

The Efficiency of the Portuguese Agricultural Credit Co-operatives Governance Model

Social and Solidarity Economy and the Challenge of Sustainable Development

The Interaction between Popular Economy, Social Movements and Public Policies. A Case Study of the Waste Pickers’ Movement

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

Cooperative Housing and Social Cohesion: The Role of Linking Social Capital

Richard Lang and Andreas Novy. European Planning Studies, volume 22, number 8, pages 1744-1764, August 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/ceps/2014/
00000022/00000008/art00013

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The article examines the role of housing cooperatives for social cohesion in the city by introducing linking social capital which grasps the vertical dimension of social capital. Housing cooperatives represent a crucial intermediate level between residents and urban housing policy, thus providing opportunity structures for bottom-linked citizen participation. Drawing on the case of Vienna, a large-scale household survey and interviews with key informants provide empirical evidence on the importance of a form of social capital which links actors at different levels in the spatial hierarchy: residents, housing managers and political decision-makers. The findings add to our understanding of the opportunities and problems with resident participation in a policy field structured by multi-level governance. Our two-level analysis shows that the dominant model of governance, top-down as well as neoliberal, has structurally limited the room for participatory practices in cooperative housing. Nevertheless, we argue that professional housing cooperatives have a potential to give residents a voice beyond the neighbourhood. Their strong linkages with public decision-makers at different scales can help leverage ideas and resources of residents.”

 

 

Does the Effectiveness of Board of Directors Affect Firm Performance of Consumer Co-Operatives? The Case of iCOOP Korea

Eunju Choi, Woosuk Choi, Seungkwon Jang and Sangsun Park. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 3, pages 371-386, September 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12046/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Consumer co-operatives in Korea have been growing rapidly since they launched their own shops. If co-operatives would be too much oriented to enlargement or economic growth, they might easily pay no attention to members’ participation which is one of the priorities in co-operatives. It could lead to losing the value of co-operatives. So it is important to adjust the balance between members’ participation and economic growth. This paper focuses on the role of board of directors in doing that. It aims to examine how effectiveness of the board influences members’ participation and the participation has effect on performance of co-operatives in the case of iCOOP Korea. The variables such as communication with members and usage of management skills and knowledge are employed as measures of the effectiveness of the board in decision-making process. The data are collected by survey the respondents of which are 222 directors of 30 primary co-operatives. It is analyzed by Structural Equation Model. The findings of the research are as follows. Firstly, communication of the board with members increases the members’ democratic participation, and the increased participation contributes to improving the financial performance. Secondly, management skills and knowledge of the board does not have significant relations with the level of members’ participation, even though members’ economic participation has significantly positive relation with the financial performance. The findings imply that members’ voluntary participation will be increased when boards of co-operatives try to reflect members’ needs in the decision making processes, and it can help the co-operatives improve their financial performance. It suggests a clue for the trade-off between the value of co-operatives and growth of business which many co-operatives are trying to resolve.”

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

The Role and Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs in Contemporary Rural Cooperative Development in China: Case Studies of Rural Social Entrepreneurship

Hong Lan, Ying Zhu, David Ness, Ke Xing and Kris Schneider. Asia Pacific Business Review, volume 20, number 3, pages 379-400, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/apb/2014/
00000020/00000003/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Rural communities in China have experienced rapid changes in recent years under the government's policy of ‘new countryside development’. Remarkably, there has been an increase in social entrepreneurship led by village leaders and capable individuals with an entrepreneurial spirit. This research is based on in-depth interviews with several of these social entrepreneurs in multiple villages in Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces in China. It aims to explore the key issues related to the role of social entrepreneurship and leadership in developing rural cooperatives. The findings suggest that there are multiple key characteristics of social entrepreneurship in the process of rural cooperative development. The research findings have implications for rural community development in transitional economies in terms of developing social entrepreneurship capabilities.”

 

Looking for Friends, Fans, and Followers? Social Media Use in Public and Nonprofit Human Services

David A. Campbell, Krisitina T. Lambright, and Christopher J. Wells. Public Administration Review, volume 74, number 5, pages 655-663, September 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/puar/2014/
00000074/00000005/art00019

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article uses interviews and Internet data to examine social media use among nonprofit organizations and county departments involved in the delivery of human services in a six‐county area in south‐central New York State. Social media use was modest, with nonprofit organizations much more likely to use it than county departments. Organizations used social media primarily to market organizational activities, remain relevant to key constituencies, and raise community awareness. Most organizations either had a narrow view of social media's potential value or lacked a long‐term vision. Barriers to use included institutional policies, concerns about the inappropriateness of social media for target audiences, and client confidentiality. Findings build on recent research regarding the extent to which nonprofit organizations and local governments use social media to engage stakeholders. Future research should investigate not only the different ways organizations use social media but also whether organizations use it strategically to advance organizational goals.”

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

L’évaluation financière des coopératives modernes

Patrick Sentis. Revue Française de Gestion, volume 40/242, juin-juillet 2014.

http://rfg.revuesonline.com/article.jsp?articleId=19645

Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : « Cet article propose une première réflexion sur l’évaluation financière des coopératives modernes. La difficulté vient de l’ambivalence de cette forme d’organisation. Fondée sur des principes partenariaux et des objectifs s’écartant de la maximisation du profit, la coopérative est une structure qui échappe à l’acuité des financiers. Néanmoins, nous montrons que l’évaluation financière de la coopérative reste possible. Elle conduit de surcroît à réconcilier le double statut du coopérateur, investisseur et apporteur de la ressource critique. »

 

Assessing the Performance of Co-operatives in Malaysia: an Analysis of Co-operative Groups using a Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Hong Lan, Ying Zhu, David Ness, Ke Xing and Kris Schneider. Asia Pacific Business Review, volume 20, number 3, pages 484-505, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/apb/2014/
00000020/00000003/art00010

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study assesses the performance of co-operatives in Malaysia by evaluating 56 out of the 70 co-operative groups. The productivity and efficiency of the groups were evaluated in the first- and second-stage analysis by employing the data envelopment analysis and Tobit regression model. Despite the financial and non-financial support by the federal government and perceived significant role played by the co-operatives in the country's development, the findings indicate that the performance of co-operatives have not been satisfactory. Only 19.6% of the groups under study were found to be efficient and the ‘big co-operatives’ that comprise less than 2% of total co-operatives in the country dominated among the successful ones. The results endorse the general perception that co-operatives in Malaysia are facing challenges necessitating immediate attention.”

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

Do Stakeholder Expectations Shape Organizational Intellectual Capital Reports?

Stefania Veltry. Knowledge and Process Management,, volume 21, number 3, pages 177-186, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/kpm/2014/
00000021/00000003/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper positions the analysis of intellectual capital (IC) reporting within the stakeholder accountability paradigm. Within this paradigm, corporate information is seen as essential to provide an account to stakeholder groups and for management to discharge its accountability. A good relationship with various stakeholders could gain support and approval from them, which is beneficial for the organization to survive and succeed in a sustainable manner in society. IC information can be included in social accounting area including in this generic term all accounts which go beyond the economic. The research question of the paper (do stakeholders play a role in shaping organizational IC report?) is addressed through a case study of a large Italian nonprofit organization (NPO), ANPAS Piemonte, chosen because it is the only NPO producing audited IC reports in Italy from 2003. The research has been carried out under a qualitative approach and employed two qualitative tools (document analysis and semistructured interview). From the analysis of qualitative data, it emerges that ANPAS Piemonte adopts a management approach to stakeholders, trying to handle stakeholders' expectations for his managerial purposes instead of involving stakeholders in organizational decision‐making process.”

 

Learning-by-doing as an Approach to Teaching Social Entrepreneurship

Jane Chang, Abdelhafid Benamraoui and Alison Rieple. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, volume 51, number 5, pages 459-471, September 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/riie/2014/
00000051/00000005/art00002

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Many studies have explored the use of learning-by-doing in higher education, but few have applied this to social entrepreneurship contexts and applications: this paper addresses this gap in the literature. Our programme involved students working with different stakeholders in an interactive learning environment to generate real revenue for social enterprises. Our results show that learning-by-doing enables students to develop their entrepreneurial skills and enhance their knowledge of social businesses. The findings also show that students became more effective at working in teams and in formulating and applying appropriate business strategies for the social enterprises. Overall, the learning-by-doing approach discussed in this paper is capable of developing the entrepreneurial skills of students, but there are challenges that need to be addressed if such an approach is to be effective.”

 

Enriching Work Environment in the Welfare Service Sector: the Case of Social Enterprises in Swedish Childcare

Victor Pestoff and Johan Vamstad. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 3, pages 353-370, September 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12033/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Karasak and Theorell's demand/control model for analyzing work environment posits a high degree of both demands and control for active or good working conditions, while stress occurs when demands are plentiful, but there are few possibilities of control. This article addresses a significant increase of work-related demands for the employees of the public sector in Sweden. It also explores the potential contribution of social enterprises to enrich work environment and provide ‘good work’. The empirical data was taken from two separate studies of work environment at Swedish childcare facilities, one from 1994–95 and another from 2006–07. The article shows that work environment conditions changed radically about 20 years ago and that the effects are still apparent today. The results also show, however, that small, social enterprises continue to offer a better work environment than public facilities.”

 

Antecedents to Market Orientation in the Worker Cooperative Organization: the Mondragon Group

Izaskun Agirre, Pedro Reinares and Amaia Agirre. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 3, pages 387-408, September 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12044/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Given the socio-economic importance of cooperative firms and in the light of evidence that they are an effective option for competing in complex environments, an intensive examination of their organizational model is required. It is significant that some of the most consolidated worker cooperative organizations have focused on Market Orientation. The central purpose of this research is therefore to examine the influence of a set of internal antecedents of market orientation found in cooperatives. We shall then verify the possible benefits of market orientation on their business performance. The subject of this analysis will be the worker-owned businesses that make up the Mondragon cooperative group, a global pioneer in democratic business practice.”

 

Social Enterprises and the Performance Advantages of a Vincentian Marketing Orientation

Morgan P. Miles, Martie-Louise Verreynne and Belinda Luke. Journal of Business Ethics, volume 123, issue 4, pages 549-556, September 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-013-2009-3?
wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study focuses on the managerial issue of should social enterprises (SEs) become more marketing oriented. It adapts the Kohli et al. (J Mark Res 30:467–477, 1993) MARKOR marketing orientation scale to measure the adoption of marketing by SEs. The items capture Vincentian-based values to leverage business in service to the poor as a measure of a Vincentian marketing orientation (VMO). A VMO is an organisational wide value-driven philosophy of management that focuses a SE on meeting its objectives by adopting a more marketing orientated approach to serve the needy and poor in a just and sustainable manner. SEs that exhibit a VMO seek to understand and respond to both the needs of their beneficiaries and stakeholders. They are constantly generating, disseminating, and responding to environmental, beneficiary, and stakeholder information and develop their business propositions to more effectively and efficiently meet the needs of the poor, while guided by a philosophy of leveraging business for social good. This study of SEs in Australia found that a VMO is strongly and positively correlated with social, economic, and environmental performance. These findings suggest that SEs may benefit by leveraging marketing capabilities to better serve their beneficiaries and stakeholders.”

 

Pay Dissatisfaction and Intention to Leave

Gerrit J. M. Treuren and Elizabeth Frankish. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 25, issue 1, pages 5-21, Fall 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nml.21108/
abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article examines the power of a particular type of employee attachment—client embeddedness—in buffering the adverse effect of pay dissatisfaction on employee intention to leave. Based on a sample of 153 personal care workers employed by a disability service organization, this article finds that client embeddedness—the attachment that employees can experience as a result of interactions with clients or customers—dampens the adverse effect of pay dissatisfaction on employee intention to leave. This finding has implications for the development of appropriate recruitment and retention practices in not-for-profit organizations.”

 

Co-located Nonprofit Centers

Diane Vinokur-Kaplan and Bowen McBeath. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 25, issue 1, pages 77-91, Fall 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nml.21110/
abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Nonprofit centers are organized to house individual nonprofits “under one roof” to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness and to offer shared services to diminish administrative load. This post-occupancy tenant satisfaction survey of three such US centers represents the first empirical analysis of such organizations. We find that nonprofit tenants (N=118) initially co-located due to the leasing price and the new physical environment (free parking and safety). Nearly all nonprofit tenants wished to remain at their nonprofit centers, largely for the same reasons that brought them there. The article then discusses strategies to achieve the high response rates attained in this study. It concludes with some implications for nonprofit centers, communities, and nonprofit staff—now and in the future, including lower occupancy costs and enhanced quality of nonprofits’ workspace.”

 

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

 

Governmental Influences on the Evolution of Agricultural Cooperatives in Vietnam: an Institutional Perspective with Case Studies

Anne Cox and Viet Le. Asia Pacific Business Review, volume 20, number 3, pages 401-418, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/apb/2014/
00000020/00000003/art00006

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Using an institutionalist approach as the main framework, this research examines the evolution of Vietnamese agricultural cooperatives over the last six decades through four distinct phases – the voluntary collectivization period of 1954–1975, the compulsory collectivization period of 1975–1981, the de-collectivization period of 1981–1997 and the neo-collectivization period since 1997. Based on two case studies, this research examines the role of the Vietnamese government in the development of Vietnamese agricultural cooperatives. It argues that a stable legal environment and appropriate government support are extremely important for the successful development of cooperatives. In terms of theoretical contribution, the study calls for an integration of the notion of institutional dynamics into the current ‘static’ institutionalism and emphasizes the need to analyse institutions' influences at central, local and organizational levels to understand the formation and development of organizations. It also offers some policy implications that are relevant to the development of cooperatives in other economies.”

 

L’élaboration d’un cadre juridique européen de l’entrepreneuriat social à l’épreuve des obstacles juridiques, fiscaux et administratifs nationaux

Rachid Rhattat. Revue internationale de droit économique, tome XXVIII, numéro 2/2014, p.157-181, août 2014

http://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-droit-economique
-2014-2-page-157.htm

Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : « L’entrepreneuriat social, forme d’entrepreneuriat qui vise à conjuguer efficacité économique et impact social, fait l’objet depuis quelques années d’un intérêt croissant de la part des acteurs institutionnels européens. Face à l’hétérogénéité des cadres juridiques nationaux de l’entrepreneuriat social dans une UE désormais à 28, le processus d’harmonisation des réglementations en vigueur, à l’échelle européenne, est particulièrement complexe. En effet, la définition et l’implémentation d’une politique européenne visant à une reconnaissance accrue et au développement de l’entrepreneuriat social imposent la mise en œuvre d’une série de mesures législatives parmi lesquelles celles relatives à la simplification de l’environnement réglementaire. L’objectif, à terme, est de permettre aux différents types d’organisations (coopératives, associations, mutuelles et fondations) de bénéficier de meilleures possibilités pour développer leurs activités transnationales, mais également d’obtenir une visibilité accrue et donc d’attirer davantage d’investisseurs. D’un point de vue pragmatique, l’action des institutions européennes en faveur de l’amélioration de l’environnement juridique passera, d’une part, par l’adoption de statuts juridiques appropriés et, d’autre part, par la mise en place de règles relatives aux aides d’État plus favorables aux entreprises sociales et une réglementation adaptée des marchés publics. »

 

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

 

The Long March of Chinese Co-operatives: Towards Market Economy, Participation and Sustainable Development

Andrea Bernardi and Mattia Miani. Asia Pacific Business Review, volume 20, number 3, pages 330-355, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/apb/2014/
00000020/00000003/art00003

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This work presents a history of the co-operative firm in China from its origins in the early twenth century. The aim is to describe how in its evolution, the Chinese Co-operative Movement has diverged from the western notion of a co-operative. To understand the similarities and the divergence, we will consider a number of economic and cultural factors, including the etymology of the Chinese and English words for ‘co-operative’, the Confucian culture and the influence of the political contingencies. We argue that contemporary Chinese economic transition would benefit from the presence of a strong, western style, co-operative sector but that the contribution of the co-operative sector towards sustainability cannot take place unless a civil society develops as well.”

 

Community and Cooperation : the Evolution of Cooperatives Towards New Models of Citizens’ Democratic Participation in Public Services Provision

Pier Angelo Mori. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 3, pages 327-352, September 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12045/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The community cooperatives that are spreading today in many parts of the world are the arrival point of an evolutionary process that has seen the progressive shift of cooperatives’ focus from specific social and professional groups to society as a whole. This evolution is marked by two changes. The first was at the turn of the 19th century when there made their appearance the first community cooperatives which catered to the needs of a whole community. Among them were electric cooperatives, cooperative banks and some kinds of agricultural cooperatives. A further development relevant to the evolution of community cooperatives occurred towards the end of the last century with the enlargement of cooperatives’ aims to embrace society's benefit. From this process there emerge in total four categories of cooperatives which taken together constitute a complete classification of the cooperative universe. New community cooperatives are the off-springs of the old ones but the picture is rather confused. The term itself is relatively new and similar institutions are named differently at different times. Moreover, though having a few basic features in common, they differ much from one another and from the old ones. To take care of this we elaborate a concept of community cooperative consistent with its evolution and the classification of cooperatives we have identified. Basic elements of the concept are community goods, territory and citizenship, which are discussed extensively with reference to factual cases. We then discuss in what way new community cooperatives differ from old ones. The paper closes with a discussion of their future prospects.”

 

AUTRES

Other / Otros

 

Reframing the “Irish Question”: the Role of the Irish Co-Operative Movement in the Formation of Irish Nationalism, 1900–22

Patrick Mary Doyle. Irish Studies Review, volume 22, number 3, pages 267-284, July 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/cisr/2014/
00000022/00000003/art00001

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article examines the role of the Irish co-operative movement in the early twentieth century and argues that it played a crucial role in shaping a popular understanding of the “Irish Question”. This mass-membership movement impacted upon the development of the Irish state and population. By taking this rural, social movement as a lens to analyse Irish society in the early twentieth century, social and economic issues re-emerge as central components to a contemporary understanding of Ireland's increasingly contested position within the Union. As the expectation of some kind of political resolution to demands for political independence grew during the First World War, radical nationalism absorbed a social and economic discourse that originated within the co-operative movement in its critique of the British state as it operated in Ireland. Irish co-operation represented a sophisticated form of political economy that provided an influential ideological platform for Irish nationalists as they anticipated some form of political independence.”

 

Functions of Dysfunction. Managing the Dynamics of an Organizational Duality in a Natural Food Cooperative

Blake E. Ashforth and Peter H. Reingen. Administrative Science Quarterly, volume 59, number 3, pages 474-516, September 2014.

http://asq.sagepub.com/content/59/3/474?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “We report the results of an ethnographic study of a natural food cooperative in which we found an inherent tension in its mission between idealism and pragmatism, and we explore the dynamics through which that tension was managed and engaged in day-to-day governance and activities. Insights from participant observation, archival data, semi-structured interviews, and surveys provide a detailed and holistic account of the intergroup and intragroup processes through which the co-op negotiated its dualistic nature, as embodied in its hybrid organizational identity. The findings suggest that the value of each side of the duality was recognized at both the individual and organizational levels. Members’ discomfort with the duality, however, led them to split the mission in two and identify with one part, while projecting their less-favored part on others, creating an identity foil (an antithesis). This splitting resulted in ingroups and outgroups and heated intergroup conflict over realizing cooperative ideals vs. running a viable business. Ingroup members favoring one part of the mission nonetheless identified with the outgroup favoring the other because it embodied a side of themselves they continued to value. Individuals who exemplified their ingroup’s most extreme attributes were seen by the outgroup as prototypical, thus serving as “lightning rods” for intergroup conflict; this dynamic paradoxically enabled other ingroup members to work more effectively with moderate members of the outgroup. The idealist–pragmatist duality was kept continually in play over time through oscillating decisions and actions that shifted power from one group to the other, coupled with ongoing rituals to repair and maintain relationships disrupted by the messiness of the process. Thus ostensible dysfunctionality at the group level fostered functionality at the organizational level.”

 

Landscape Conservation Cooperatives: Building a Network to Help Fulfill Public Trust Obligations

Haubol Jacobson. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, volume 19, number 5, pages 427-436, September 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/uhdw/2014/
00000019/00000005/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network (Network), comprised of 22 conservation partnerships spanning North America and U.S. Islands, is uniquely positioned to assist government members in fulfilling their public trust obligations to sustain natural and cultural resources for current and future generations by (a) ensuring inclusivity of broad stakeholder participation in conservation decision-making, and (b) building capacity for public trust to work in conservation, thus increasing the chance for successful and lasting conservation outcomes. In this article, we discuss the vision for the Network; challenges individual LCCs and the Network face in achieving the vision of sustaining natural and cultural resources for the benefit of current and future generations, a public trust obligation of most of the members; and ways in which member LCCs are making progress in this regard. We offer recommendations for the Network to consider to improve its ability to meet public trust obligations.”

 

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

 

Policy Arena: Rethinking Rural Co-Operatives in Development

Special issue of the Journal of International Development, volume 26, issue 5, July 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.v26.5/issuetoc