ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES
Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
What Encourages Nonprofits' Adoption of Good Governance Policies?
The Determination of Membership in Cooperative Banks: Common Bond versus Private Gain
Governance of Nine Ontario Food Co-operatives
MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT
Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento
What is Different about Socially Responsible Funds? A Holdings-Based Analysis
Is Bigger Really Better?: The Effect of Nonprofit Facilities Projects on Financial Vulnerability
The Playground of the Rich ? Growing Social Business in the 21st Century
La contribution de l'économie sociale au développement du Bas-Saint-Laurent
Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación
S'inspirer du succès des coopératives
The Role of Stakeholders in the Efficiency of Nonprofit Sports Clubs
Management / Gestión
The Role and Strategy for a Community Association of Co-operatives as a Secondary Organization: The Case of the Guro Community of Co-operatives in Korea
Regulation by Reputation: Monitoring and Sanctioning in Nonprofit Accountability Clubs
Becoming a Hybrid Organization: When Traditional Nonprofits Found New Ventures
Social innovation / Innovación social
The Impact of Societal and Social Innovation. A Case-Based Approach
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
Antecedents and Outcomes of Non-profit Public Service Motivation in Korean NPOs
Public Policies, Stakeholder Interest, and Nonprofit Development: The Case of Trade Associations in Shanghai, China.
CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS
Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones
Re-imagining Social Enterprise
The Social Enterprise Zoo: A Guide for Perplexed Scholars, Entrepreneurs, Philanthropists, Leaders, Investors, and Policymakers
A Rhetoric-Orientation View of Social Entrepreneurship
Other / Otros
On the Role of Government in Promoting Altruism
Empowering Electricity. Co-operatives, Sustainability, and Power Sector Reform in Canada
Special Issues / Ediciones especiales
The Participatory Democracy Turn
Civil Society, Nonprofit Organizations, and Citizenship in China
Organization and Governance in Social Economy Enterprises
APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS
Calls for contributions / Convocatorias de artículos
ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR
Events / Eventos
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
Exploring Nonprofit Executive Turnover
Amanda J. Stewart. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 27, issue 1, pages 43–58, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Projections of executive turnover loom over the three sectors with aging baby boomers filling many executive-level positions, and research into causes, outcomes, and processes of turnover are timely inquiries. Yet, scholarly attention into nonprofit executive turnover has been limited to date and has not sufficiently examined actual turnover events. To help address this gap, forty nonprofit organizations that had recently experienced executive turnover were selected from a national random sample, and the current executives participated in an interview. This qualitative data was analyzed to identify factors and dynamics that define nonprofit executive turnover. These findings both confirm practical knowledge and offer new insights relevant to future research and practitioners alike.”
Young-Joo Lee. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 27, issue 1, pages 95 - 112, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study examines how nonprofits' external environments and organizational characteristics explain their likelihood of having written policies for good governance. Findings from the 2010 data of the National Center for Charitable Statistics show that state requirements for registration and annual reporting are not related to a nonprofit's likelihood of adopting such written policies. The results instead indicate that organizations that engage in lobbying activities and operate in metropolitan areas are more likely to have good governance standards. Most of all, the analysis shows that organizational resources, both financial and human, explain differences in the adoption of these policies. These findings suggest that the nonprofit community should collectively invest in building the infrastructure that helps smaller organizations develop good governance policies and, hence, stay competitive.”
Derek C. Jones, Iiro Jussila and Panu Kalmi. Annals of Public and cooperative economics, volume, issue, pages 411-432, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Membership in organizations has been rarely studied by economists. We study the determinants of membership in financial cooperatives, organizations that have significant economic and social presence in many countries. By identifying economic and non-economic incentives to be members of cooperatives, our conceptual framework is novel. Our empirical work analyzes panel data from 2001–2009 for Finnish cooperative banks and compares two empirical concepts of the membership ratio. We find evidence that monetary incentives are important reasons to join, but also the size of the community from which members are recruited plays a role. Over time, monetary incentives have increased and this may have contributed to faster growth in membership in cooperatives based in larger municipalities after these changes. Cooperatives attracting new members primarily on the basis of monetary rewards is also consistent, over time, with a reduction in the role of the common bond.”
Simon Berge, Wayne Caldwell and Phil Mount. Annals of Public and cooperative economics, volume87, issue 3, pages 457-474, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Questions on the use of current theories of governance for co-operative businesses are prevalent within the literature. This paper seeks to determine if the theory of cyclical board behavior can provide insight into the evolution of co-operative boards within food co-operatives in Ontario, Canada. To answer these questions managers from food co-operatives participated in a one-hour long, semi-structured interview providing their understanding of the governance within their co-operatives. Managers identified board member engagement, the changing role of the board and succession planning as issues of concern. Engagement level of board members varied from a lack of participation to overbearing participation, which caused tensions within the co-operative. Current governance theories do not appear to adequately explain governance within a co-operative structure. A single, universal governance framework does not address the complexities of a member owned firm. The cyclical board behavior, however, does provide insight into co-operative board evolution.”
MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT
Jacquelyn E. Humphrey, Geoffrey J. Warren and Junyan Boon. Journal of Business Ethics, volume 138, issue 2, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “We provide a comprehensive analysis of differences between socially responsible investment (SRI) and conventional funds in terms of manager characteristics, performance and fund styles. We use holdings-based analysis to evaluate fund performance and style, which allows us to perform a more in-depth analysis than the extant literature. We find that SRI managers have longer tenure and are more likely to be a female. However, these differences do not result in any significant difference in the performance of SRI and conventional funds. Further, it is possible to find an SRI fund of any style, although these funds are under-represented in value styles.”
Joanna Woronkowicz. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 27, issue 1, pages 79-94, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study investigates the effect of a capital facilities project on nonprofit financial vulnerability metrics. The author employs a difference-in-differences technique to model the relationship between facilities investments and financial vulnerability indicators using data for a matched-pair sample of nonprofit organizations that invested and did not invest in a facilities project. Overall the findings suggest that investments in facilities are associated with temporary increases in an organization's net assets ratio and decreases in its surplus ratio after a project is completed, and that the costs associated with facilities projects (for example, debt) place strain on nonprofit finances. The study's findings have implications for the financial management of nonprofit organizations, particularly in regard to the associated costs of capital expansion.”
Artur Steiner and Simon Teasdale. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 2, pages 201-216, August 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper aims to explore how nascent social businesses move beyond the incubation phase and it develops understanding of how early-stage social businesses access finance to achieve growth. This exploratory and inductive study is based on four focus group discussions with early-stage social entrepreneurs, “successful” social entrepreneurs who had achieved growth, and social impact investors. Social capital allows a social business founder to access financial capital to “prove their concept”, or to directly attract investment from family and friends for start-up costs. To gain funding, social entrepreneurs present the desired image of the heroic change-maker. Interestingly, creating the right impression is equally important in securing financial capital as the “hard-work” itself. This study was conducted in London, which, like many other “global” cities, has a unique business environment. The study is exploratory in nature. Further work in this area is required to draw more definitive conclusions. Financial products offered to social businesses are often dispersed and inappropriate. The study indicates that access to “soft loans” and grants is critical in the early stages of social business growth and that social entrepreneurs use both formal and informal funding sources to develop their businesses. Where a person is not connected to wealthy acquaintances either through family, or through social networks, they may often struggle to access finance in a world where the network’s resources appear to be as important as the entrepreneur’s resourcefulness. This has particular implications for the demographic make-up of “successful social entrepreneurs” operating social businesses, as these may be drawn from the most privileged and/or well-connected members of a group which already appears skewed towards white middle-class males. This study highlights that current support structures favour relatively privileged social entrepreneurs rather than encompassing and empowering those disadvantaged, social minority groups and those in the greatest need.”
Majella Simard. Éditions du GRIDEQ, Juillet 2017.
Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : “L’étude révèle entre autres que le rôle de l’économie sociale en matière de développement social serait davantage manifeste en milieu urbain. Des villes comme Cabano, Matane, Dégelis et Trois-Pistoles se démarqueraient à cet égard. Néanmoins, certains milieux ruraux ne seraient pas en reste. Ce serait plus particulièrement le cas de 16 localités, dont Esprit-Saint, St-André-de-Kamouraska, St-Joseph-de-Kamouraska, Lejeune, St-Eusèbe et Lac-des-Aigles. Par ailleurs, les impacts des entreprises d’économie sociale sur la dynamique sociale seraient moins probants dans les municipalités rurales de 1 000 habitants ou plus dont certaines exercent le rôle de petits centres de services dans leur environnement immédiat. Sur le plan économique, ce sont les entreprises sises au sein de la MRC de La Matapédia qui auraient le plus d’impact en termes de développement et en particulier celles situées à St-Vianney, à St-Moïse et à Causapscal. Bien que les différences soient peu significatives entre milieux urbains et ruraux, les organismes compris au sein des plus petites localités et celles considérées comme «dynamiques» par le MAMOT contribueraient davantage au développement économique de leur milieu respectif. À ces endroits, l’économie sociale semblerait constituer une composante incontournable de l’économie locale. À l’inverse, la MRC de Témiscouata abriterait des entreprises dont les répercussions sur la trajectoire économique régionale seraient plus mitigées. Mais dans tous les cas, les entreprises d’économie sociale apparaissent fortement ancrées dans le territoire. Cet ancrage se matérialise notamment par la création de liens sociaux, le réseautage entre les différents partenaires et acteurs impliqués au sein de ces organismes et l’appui des bénévoles. L’auteur s’est aussi attardé sur les perspectives d’avenir des entreprises à l’étude. En cette matière, les répondants ont manifesté un niveau élevé d’optimisme quant à l’avenir de leur organisme, bien que la majorité d’entre eux souhaiteraient qu’elles soient davantage soutenues par les diverses instances gouvernementales. »
Jean-François Draperi et Cécile Le Corroller. Édition Dunod, Hors collections, 208 pages, novembre 2016.
Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut: “Ce livre présente des entreprises qui visent à travers la réussite économique, le bien-être d’un territoire, d'une région, d'un pays, d'une vallée ou d'un quartier. Ces coopératives ne sont pas des sociétés de capitaux, mais des groupements de personnes. Le pouvoir n’y est pas détenu par des actionnaires mais par les sociétaires, selon le principe démocratique « une personne, une voix ». Elles ne visent pas la rémunération d’un capital placé, mais la satisfaction des besoins et attentes de leurs membres. Pour autant, elles se situent sur des marchés concurrentiels et doivent faire la preuve de leur équilibre économique. Comment réussissent-elles à conjuguer leur but avec cet impératif ? Finalité sociale et finalité économiques sont-elles en tension ou au contraire se soutiennent-elles réciproquement ? »
Dina Miragaia, Miguel Brito and João Ferreira. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 27, issue 1, pages 113-134, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article analyzes the efficiency levels of nonprofit sports clubs through the data envelopment analysis methodology and specifically evaluates how efficient and inefficient clubs perceive the distinct contribution of stakeholders in attaining their respective levels of output efficiency. The results distinguish the varying levels of efficiency between such clubs and highlight significant differences in the roles of the local government and of associations and federations in attaining these efficiency levels. The study further suggests best practices that can be adopted by officials at inefficient clubs toward reducing or eliminating their shortfalls in efficiency.”
Yena LEE, Yunhwan NAM and Sanghoon LEE. Annals of Public and Cooperative economics, volume 87, issue 3,
pages 475–496, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “In 2012, the ‘Framework Act on Cooperatives’ was legislated and about 7,500 co-operatives have been newly established in Korea. However, most of them are small, less competitive, and less skilled in management. In addition, they have difficulties in obtaining financial and management support from other organizations due to the lack of general awareness about co-operatives in Korea. To assist these co-operatives, secondary self-formed organizations composed of co-operatives have been created. This study explores the characteristics of these organizations and proposes possible models and strategies for cooperation among co-ops through these secondary organizations. In detail, we explore (1) the cooperation model to encourage collaboration among co-ops, (2) the roles and possibilities of secondary organizations to activate this cooperation model, and (3) the specific strategies and challenges for a more accessible cooperation model. To answer these questions, we conduct focus group and in-depth interviews with member and non-member co-ops in the Guro Community Association of Co-operatives, which is a self-organized secondary association in the Guro district in Seoul. Based on the interviews, we tried to find out their needs and the possibility for cooperation among co-ops at the level of the association. Also, we drew a conceptual cooperation model and its specific strategies through the association from theoretical review and interviews.”
Joannie Tremblay-Boire, Aseem Prakash and Mary Kay Gugerty. Public Administration Review, volume 76, issue 5, pages 712–722, October 2016
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Nonprofits seek to enhance their reputation for responsible management by joining voluntary regulation mechanisms such as accountability clubs. Because external stakeholders cannot fully observe nonprofits’ compliance with club obligations, clubs incorporate mechanisms to monitor compliance and impose sanctions. Yet including monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms increases the cost of club membership for nonprofits. What factors account for the variation in the strength of monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms in voluntary accountability clubs? An analysis of 224 clubs suggests that stringent monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms are more likely in fund-raising-focused clubs, clubs that offer certification (as opposed to only outlining a code of conduct), and clubs with greater longevity. The macro context in which clubs function also shapes their institutional design: clubs in OECD countries and clubs with global membership are less likely to incorporate monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms than clubs in non-OECD countries and single-country clubs, respectively.”
Loyalty to Social Ventures in Social Media: The Role of Social Cause Involvement, Identification, and Commitment
Joohyung Park, Te-Lin (Doreen) Chung, Adrienne Hall-Phillips and Nwamaka A. Anaza. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, volume 28, issue 3, pages 185-208, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Recently, more social organizations are engaging in market transactions to achieve financial self-reliance. In today’s highly competitive market, it is imperative for such social ventures to bolster long-term support from their consumers through every possible point of access, such as social media. Given the importance of social media in enhancing customer relationships, this study examines factors that promote consumers’ loyalty toward social ventures, focusing on intentions to participate in cause-related activities and opinion-sharing behavior via social media. Data obtained from 304 US consumers confirmed that consumer involvement, identification, and commitment were key determinants of consumer loyalty in social media. The results also showed that the effect of involvement was mediated by identification and commitment. The findings suggest that social ventures should not only attract interested segments through social media, but also engage and enhance their sense of belonging and commitment.”
Philip T. Roundy and Diane Halstead. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, volume 21, issue 4, pages 87-116.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “New ventures are increasingly being founded in a novel context: within the boundaries of traditional nonprofit organizations. This phenomenon represents a type of social entrepreneurship. Despite the emerging prevalence of this activity, it has received very little academic attention. This study examines the topic through an exploratory, partially inductive study based on 33 interviews with managers and other participants in the nonprofit sector. Findings generate propositions regarding nonprofits’ key motivations for creating new ventures and the characteristics of both nonprofit organizations and the managers of their business ventures that can influence venture success. These findings have implications for theory in social entrepreneurship and the market orientation of nonprofits, and they produce concrete insights for practicing nonprofit entrepreneurs and managers.”
Lin, Carol Yeh-Yun, Chen, Jeffrey. Springer Singapore Edition, 138 pages, August 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This book elaborates on the distinction between societal innovation and social innovation. It provides eight case studies to illustrate the scope, process, outcome, and impact of societal innovation and social innovation. In addition, the book proposes a model for interested parties to maximize their contribution for the common social good in a systematic and effective way. Case studies are used to illustrate concepts for readers to grasp the real essence of the relatively abstract notions of societal innovation and social innovation. In doing so, the book shows how small efforts can bring big benefits for the under privileged and to society as a whole. This book serves as a helpful resource for government officials, social innovation practitioners, social entrepreneurs, Non Profit Organizations, as well as students who would like to contribute to the common social good.”
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
Park, S.M and M.Y. Kim. International Journal of Manpower, volume 37, issue 5, pages 777-803, August 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of non-profit service motivation (NPSM) as a cognitive dimension in the enhancement of managerial accountability of Korean NGO employees. Hypotheses and a research model were designed to determine the antecedent and consequence factors of NPSM from the perspective of the self-determinants theory, social learning theory, and social exchange theory. This study relies on quantitative data obtained from Korean NGO survey questionnaires. The sample consists of 400 employees working for NGOs. The performance evaluations were conducted within a one-year period. Results of the study demonstrate that training and development are the keys to leading employees’ value congruence and motivation. The authors also confirmed that person-organizational (P-O) fit is directly associated with NPSM. Finally, intrinsically motivated NGO employees would boost the level of managerial accountability among the Korean NGO employees through organization and socialization. This study confirms that human resource development (HRD) practices and performance management system (PMS) act as very effective managerial tools for nurturing positive and constructive social exchange relationships between organizational constituents, and for developing human resources in the NGOs. This is evident in cases of individuals being given extensive participation rights when it comes to decision making (Leana et al., 1992; Mayer and Schoorman, 1998). The benefit of this reality is twofold: it strengthens individuals’ perceptions of self, fostering intrinsic motivation, and it also acts as a buffer of sorts between individuals and external pressures, weakening extrinsic motivation.”
Ting Zhao, Lili Wang, George M. Thomas. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 5, pages 2173–2198, October 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study examines the reform and development of trade associations in Shanghai, China, one of the main economic hubs of the country and marked by a substantial growth in trade associations since the reform and “opening-up” in 1978. We analyse public policies pertaining to trade associations, survey data collected from 212 local trade associations in Shanghai, and interviews of government officials and trade association leaders. The research results show that trade associations are significantly less dependent on the government and they seem to be more oriented to providing services for and representing corporate members. We trace these changes to public policy reforms and growth in private businesses. The transition reflects the dynamic and changing relationship among the government, trade associations, and business in China. We conclude with a model of these dynamics and a discussion of the implications of this study.”
CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS
Alan Kay, Michael J. Roy and Cam Donaldson. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 2, pages 217-234, August 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This intentionally polemical paper will aim to re-examine what is meant by social enterprise and try to assert its role within the current economic system. It is well over a decade since John Pearce’s Social Enterprise in Anytown was first published. Since then the term “social enterprise” has been used in multiple ways by politicians, practitioners and academics – very often for their own ideological ends. This paper will outline the context and challenges currently facing social enterprise both from outside and from inside the social enterprise movement. This paper re-affirms a paradigm for social enterprises through re-imagining how social enterprise should and could contribute to the creation of a fairer and more just society. Finally, this paper will conclude with a reflection on what Pearce argued and how the social enterprise movement has to position itself as a viable alternative way of creating goods and services based on socially responsible values.”
Dennis R. Young, Elizabeth A.M. Searing and Cassady V. Brewer. Edward Elgar Publishing, 328 pages, September 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The Social Enterprise Zoo employs the metaphor of the zoo to gain a more comprehensive understanding of social enterprise – especially the diversity of its forms; the various ways it is organized in different socio-political environments; how different forms of enterprise behave, interact, and thrive; and what lessons can be drawn for the future development and study of organizations that seek to balance social or environmental impact with economic success. Recommended for students, researchers, policymakers, entrepreneurs and managers of social purpose organizations.”
Yanto Chandra. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 2, pages 161-200, August 2016.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper aims to extend the understanding of the ways in which social entrepreneurs give sense to and legitimize their work by introducing a rhetoric-orientation view of social entrepreneurship (SE). This study uses computer-aided text analysis and computational linguistics to study 191 interviews of social and business entrepreneurs. It offers validation and exploration of new concepts pertaining to the rhetoric orientations of SE. This study confirms prior untested assumptions that the rhetoric of social entrepreneurs is more other, stakeholder engagement and justification-oriented and less self-oriented than the rhetoric of business entrepreneurs. It also confirms that the rhetoric of both types of entrepreneurs is equally economically oriented. This research makes new contribution to the SE literature by introducing three new orientations, namely, solution, impact and geographical, which reflect distinctive rhetorical themes used by social entrepreneurs, and by revealing that social entrepreneurs use terms associated with other, stakeholder engagement, justification, economic, solution, impact and geographical orientations differently than business entrepreneurs.”