ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 9, NUMÉRO 10, OCTOBRE 2014

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

The Relationship between Ownership Structure, Capital Structure and Corporate Governance Practices: A Case Study of Co-Operatives and Mutuals in New Zealand

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

Land Resistance in Zambia: a Case Study of the Luana Farmers' Cooperative

Low-Income Islamic Women, Poverty and the Solidarity Economy in Iran

Poverty Alleviation via Tourism Cooperatives in China: the Story of Yuhu

Developing Democracy: Cooperatives and Democratic Theory

Exploring the Interface between Community Development and Cooperative Development within South Africa – a Challenge of Theory, Practice and Policy

Surviving the Crisis: Worker Cooperatives in Romania

Gestion

Management / Gestión

All in the Mind: Understanding the Social Economy Enterprise Innovation in Spain

Government Funding, Employment Conditions, and Work Organization in Non-Profit Community Services: a Comparative Study

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Case Studies, Practices and Perspectives (book)

Franchising for Social Innovation (book)

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

Internally Displaced Persons between Nonprofits and Government: Comparing Two Israeli Wars

Changing Relationships between Nonprofit and For-profit Human Service Organizations Under the Long-Term Care System in Japan

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

Defining the Universe of Social Enterprise: Competing Metaphors

AUTRES

Other / Otros

A Place for Organisational Critical Consciousness: Comparing Two Cases Studies of Freirean Nonprofits

Stimulating Learning about Social Entrepreneurship through Income Generation Projects

Co-Operatives and Education in the Basque Country: the Ikastolas in the Final Years of Franco’s Dictatorship

The State of Nonprofit and Philanthropic Studies Doctoral Education

Research Trends in Nonprofit Graduate Studies. A Growing Interdisciplinary Field

VARIA

MESMER – Mapping European Social Market Economy: Review on Social Dialogue, Labour Market and Employment. Final Report

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

The Relationship between Ownership Structure, Capital Structure and Corporate Governance Practices: A Case Study of Co-Operatives and Mutuals in New Zealand

Krishna Reddy and Stuart Locke. International Journal of Managerial Finance, volume 10, number 4, pages 511-536, August 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
full/10.1108/IJMF-12-2012-0130

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of corporate governance practised by co-operatives and mutual societies in New Zealand and whether there is any relationship between co-operatives’ ownership structure, capital structure and agency costs. The study also explores whether the capital structure and the ownership structure changed during the period 2005-2011. Panel data for the period 2005-2011 are analysed using ordinary least squares regression and the Tobit model regression. The authors have used operating expense to sales, asset utilisation and ROA as the dependent variables. The findings indicate that an increase in independent directors, board member experience and size (measured by total annual sales) reduces agency costs in co-operatives and mutuals in New Zealand. Also, borrowing from members rather than banks reduces agency cost and increases profitability in co-operatives and mutuals. Caution should be exercised when generalising the findings of the study as it is restricted to New Zealand environment and the sample size used is relatively small. This study offers insights for policy makers internationally who are interested in adopting similar corporate governance practices in their own countries. Within New Zealand, the corporate governance debate associated with co-operatives and mutual societies will be better informed as a direct consequence of this research. This is the first study that extends the research undertaken by Ang et al. (2000) and Singh and Davidson (2003) to the cooperative and mutual business model in New Zealand.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

Land Resistance in Zambia: a Case Study of the Luana Farmers' Cooperative

Grace-Edward Galabuzi. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, volume 32, issue 3, pages 367-377, 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/02589001.2014.956498#.VDz5hhaMGQI

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article focuses on local struggles and new social practices in Zambia, a country rarely discussed when investigating sites of resistance in the region. It reviews the economic history of Zambia, highlighting the centrality of mining to the country's political economy and the effects of the privatisation of Zambia's copper mines, one central part of the broader liberalisation programme undertaken in the 1990s, on former miners and mining communities. Spontaneous opposition to resettlement of local communities, as required by new private mine and landowners, led resistance to take on a more organised form, notably in the formation of the Luana Farmers' Cooperative. The cooperative met with some success under very challenging economic and political conditions, which may fall far short of a fundamental repudiation of neoliberal restructuring, but nonetheless strengthened the survival capacities and political clout of some of those most harshly affected by it.”

 

Low-Income Islamic Women, Poverty and the Solidarity Economy in Iran

Roksana Bahramitash. Middle East Critique, volume 23, issue 3, pages 363-377, 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/19436149.2014.959796#.VDUJRxYvyHs

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article is based on fieldwork research among Islamic women of low and lower middle-income households and seeks to explore their role in the solidarity/social economy, which is neither part of the government nor the private sector and primarily is rooted in the community. It documents the female-dominated, mainly informal solidarity economy functioning parallel to official and semi-formal public and private ways that Iran deals with poverty. The research concentrates exclusively on women who are practicing Muslims, as the bulk of the data I gathered was from low and lower middle-income neighborhoods where religion is a part of daily lives and where there are more incidents of economic need. The solidarity economy among the low income demonstrated that the role of religious women is important. Moreover, because of an overall decline in the role of the state, especially the development (welfare) state globally but more specifically in this case Iran, as well as the economic crisis due to international sanctions, the solidarity economy is a vehicle for poverty relief. Self-identified Muslim women's roles in the solidarity economy tend to remain by and large invisible and undocumented and therefore its value overlooked. Yet, as literature on gender and development indicates, women's role in distributing resources is geared toward their families and communities and therefore understanding how their networks operate can provide policy insight into how poverty can be addressed through community and grass roots organizations, some of which operate in the form of self-help, while others mediate between the public and the private sector.”

 

Poverty Alleviation via Tourism Cooperatives in China: the Story of Yuhu

Yang Xiaotao and Kam Hung. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, volume 26, number 6, pages 879-906, August 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
full/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2013-0085

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study aims to understand whether poverty alleviation can be realized in tourism via tourism cooperatives. As a fast growing industry in the world, tourism has accelerated economic development in many participating places. A large number of tourism cooperatives have emerged to capture conspicuous economic benefits from tourism in many rural areas of China. The role of tourism cooperatives has not yet been explored from the poverty alleviation perspective. Two field trips to Yuhu Village, Lijiang, China, which included in-depth interviews, were conducted during August and December 2011, aiming at understanding the roles of tourism cooperatives in poverty alleviation. In-depth interviews with villagers (45) and mangers of tourism cooperative (5) were conducted. A systematic coding procedure including open, axial and selective coding was conducted with the software assistance of ATLAS.TI6.2. Evidence from Yuhu suggested that resources and power changes, both of which are further divided into both individual and collective levels, are the main contributors to substantial improvements of the poor. Material and social resources were significantly accumulated. In addition, empowerment, referring to the improvements in status, legitimacy and capability/knowledge, facilitated villagers to obtain favorable policies. By embracing a more broad understanding of poverty, the tourism cooperative is proven to effectively alleviate the poverty suffering of Yuhu villagers. Understanding poverty from a multi-dimensional perspective is deemed to be critical to reveal the actual story, as evidenced in this study, with analyzing resource flows and power changes at different stages of tourism development. By embracing a more broad understanding of poverty, the role of tourism cooperatives in poverty alleviation was able to be noticed and emerged from in-depth interviews. A systematic scrutiny has been carried out to examine the pro-poor effects brought about by tourism cooperatives.”

 

Developing Democracy: Cooperatives and Democratic Theory

Mark J. Kaswan. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, volume 6, issue 2, pages 190-205, September 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/19463138.2014.951048#.VCGGjJR5MgA

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Impoverished communities often suffer not only from the lack of wealth, but also from a kind of democratic deficit. To be poor means not only not having money, but also being buffeted by the winds of fortune, with little sense of control over the major forces that commonly affect people’s lives. As a model of development, cooperatives have been promoted not only as a model for community wealth-building, but also as a form of empowerment due to their inherently democratic nature. But how democratic are they, really? This paper explores this question from the perspective of democratic theory, using a theoretical framework developed by the nineteenth-century political economist William Thompson, who laid out the principles on which the cooperative movement is based. An important element of Thompson’s theory is that the cooperative structure alters the socio-economic relations of their members, aligning their interests with one another on the basis of a strong principle of equality. It is this alignment of interests on the basis of equality that gives cooperatives their strongly democratic character. However, the paper finds that the democratic nature of cooperatives is challenged by a number of factors. These include internal dynamics, such as managerialism and size, and external dynamics such as the tensions that may arise between workers and consumers or between members’ interests and those of the broader community. The existence of these tensions and dynamics means that an effective community wealth-building strategy needs to incorporate mechanisms for the harmonisation of interests and the integration of different perspectives in a network model that promotes internal exchange and integration.”

 

Exploring the Interface between Community Development and Cooperative Development within South Africa – a Challenge of Theory, Practice and Policy

Peter Westoby. Development in Practice, volume 24, issue 7, pages 827-839, September 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/09614524.2014.943155#.VDUM8BYvyHs

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “During the past few years within South Africa there has been a proliferation of state-led community development initiatives tasked to form community-based cooperatives. It is into such a context that research was conducted during 2011–13 into how South African community development workers understand and conduct their professional practice in relation to cooperative formation. Findings from the research consider issues such as: a dilemma of statecraft – working within instrumental contexts; the emotional work required of the practitioner; and, finally, confusing the developmental process. The discussions contribute to both theory-building and practice wisdom, while also contributing to South African cooperative policy.”

 

Surviving the Crisis: Worker Cooperatives in Romania

Mihaela Lambru and Claudia Petrescu. Organization, volume 21, number 5, pages 730-745, September 2014.

http://org.sagepub.com/content
/21/5/730.abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The aim of this article is to provide structured information on the profile, trends, and challenges of worker cooperatives in Romania. Its main purpose is to help refine the current explanatory framework for worker cooperatives in post-communist countries in the light of empirical evidence drawn from research conducted in Romania. Building on the literature and empirical research, it identifies and highlights some of the present issues and challenges facing Romanian worker cooperatives. Our analysis has shown that many of the elements that are considered key to the successful development of worker cooperatives on the basis of international good practice are missing in Romania. While some enabling elements are impossible to replicate, there are others that might be improved and could help worker cooperatives develop further: a shift away from policies that discriminate against cooperatives in terms of access to credits and the development of governmental programs that could open the public market more to these entities; a better organization of type II cooperatives and of the services they offer to their members; better public image and communication strategies, and greater investment to enhance the advocacy skills of these organizations.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

All in the Mind: Understanding the Social Economy Enterprise Innovation in Spain

Antonio Padilla-Meléndez, Ana Rosa Del Aguila-Obra and Nigel Lockett. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, volume 20, number 5, pages 493-512, August 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
doi/full/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2013-0164

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Several studies have investigated the factors affecting innovation in medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at different levels. However, research into the characteristics of the entrepreneur (individual level) in social economy enterprises (SEE), and the relationship to innovation is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to build upon previous innovation literature to analyse SEE innovativeness. This paper empirically analyses data from 193 face-to-face interviews with the founder/owner/managing director of small (zero to nine employees) SEE in Andalucía, Spain. A semi-structured questionnaire was produced using the literature review. To ensure the reliability of the data collection and the consistency of the results, several researchers reviewed the codification and analysis of the answers. Quantitative analyses were performed on the data, including descriptive statistical analysis and multivariate analysis (factorial for innovativeness construct validation, multiple regression, cluster, and discriminant). […] The research findings suggest that SEE would benefit from degree-level people with proactive attitudes towards innovation. Clearly, attitude and education are important aspects of the individual's mindset. This study demonstrates that the mind sets of the owners of SEE, in terms of both education and attitude, positively impact innovativeness. At least in SEE, degree-level entrepreneurs with positive attitudes towards innovation run more innovative firms. The challenge for regional policy makers is to look beyond the formal education system to promote innovation skills programmes for social and economic impact.”

 

Government Funding, Employment Conditions, and Work Organization in Non-Profit Community Services: a Comparative Study

Ian Cunningham, Donna Baines and Sara Charlesworth. Public Administration, volume 92, number 3, pages 582-598, September 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
doi/10.1111/padm.12060/abstract;
jsessionid=045F8AF93B1A6205A94
A1D69FAF533CE.f03t02

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The article provides a comparative exploration of New Public Management (NPM) funding models on the non-profit sectors in the UK and Australia, and the implications for services, employment conditions, and worker commitment. A degree of convergence exists around the principles of NPM in the two case studies, creating employment regimes of low pay, casualization, and work intensification. Enhanced vulnerability to pay cuts in the UK, and insecurity in Australia are explained by national differences in exposure to recession, industrial relations institutions, and competition, leading to diminishing worker commitment and raising important concerns for policy-makers as benefits gained from outsourcing to non-profits are eroded.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Case Studies, Practices and Perspectives (book)

Brendan Galbraith and Francesco Molinari (eds.). ACPI, 156 pages, September 2014.

http://www.academic-bookshop.com/
ourshop/prod_3504124-Social-Innovation
-and-Entrepreneurship-Case-Studies-
Practices-and-Perspectives.html

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “In today’s society, innovation research which focuses on the social economy is especially important. The sustainability of social innovations is paramount in order to develop an environment where the society as a whole profits and social enterprises can excel and meet a range of community needs. This book brings together a collection of papers on social entrepreneurship that have been presented at the European Conference for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ECIE) and International Conference for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ICIE). The papers in this book come from eight countries and they highlight important issues, Practices and Perspectives in Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship.”

 

Franchising for Social Innovation (book)

Ilan Alon (ed.). Palgrave Pivot, 100 pages, October 2014.

http://www.palgrave.com/page/
detail/franchising-for-social-innovation
-ilan-alon/?K=9781137455826

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “At the intersection of social enterprise and micro finance literatures, this book reviews a variety of social franchising formats across a number of developing countries. Social franchising represents a third generation form of franchising development, after trade-name and business-format franchising. Opportunities and threats for social franchising forms are examined, including specifically social franchising, micro franchising. Detailed cases of Access Afya, World Vision and Sari Organic cover healthcare, agriculture and retailing sectors. Social franchising has the potential to change the way we live by scaling the social benefits of enterprises through standardization and replication, and by providing an impetus for economic renewal at the bottom of the pyramid.”

 

 

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

 

Internally Displaced Persons between Nonprofits and Government: Comparing Two Israeli Wars

Paula Kabalo and Hagai Katz. Journal of Civil Society, volume 10, issue 3, pages 273-293, October 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/
abs/10.1080/17448689.2014.928153#.
VD_CwBYvyHt

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Internally displaced persons (IDPs) crises provide a dramatic backdrop to government–nonprofit relations, as they tend to engage variegated actors at local, national, and international levels. Such crises reveal the composition, forms of engagement, roles, and relationships of the actors involved. The comparison of two crises along Israeli history, separated by years of changing welfare systems and social and political contexts, is an exceptional opportunity to examine government–nonprofit relations over time, and assess the impact of this relationship on IDP crisis management. This article compares two separate studies of IDP response, one in the Israeli War of Independence and one in the Second Lebanon War. The differences are analysed using models of government–nonprofit relations, and reflect the dynamic nature and complexity of these relations in IDP crises. Some conclusions concerning IDP crisis management are suggested.”

 

Changing Relationships between Nonprofit and For-profit Human Service Organizations Under the Long-Term Care System in Japan

Yuko Suda. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 5, pages 1235-1261, October 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/
10.1007/s11266-014-9439-0?
wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “In Japan, a nonprofit organization system enacted in the late 1990s and the later introduction of privatization policies in human services were expected to overturn government dominance of nonprofit organization activities. By focusing on the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system, which privatized public human services for the first time in the country, this study empirically examines whether, and to what extent, nonprofit–government relationships in Japan have actually changed as a result of this new system. In addition, because LTCI newly allows for-profit organizations to provide services, the influence of such organizations were incorporated into the analysis. The outcomes of this study demonstrate that the government continues to extend its sphere of influence over nonprofit and for-profit organizations through LTCI. In addition, for-profit organizations appear to be more successful than nonprofit organizations, in that the former organizations have overcome their lack of experience as public service providers by taking over the roles that nonprofit organizations have traditionally occupied.”

 

 

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

 

Defining the Universe of Social Enterprise: Competing Metaphors

Dennis R. Young and Jesse D. Lecy. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 5, pages 1307-1332, October 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/
10.1007/s11266-013-9396-z?
wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “After more than a decade of research the debate over social enterprise definitions and classifications continues. EMES network in Europe argues that there is an ideal type of social enterprise to which all ventures should aspire. The spectrum approach emphasizes the trade-off between pure profit-making and social impact, locating organizations on this continuum. The Schumpeterians take innovation as its central focus, arguing that the disruption of the status quo is an important differentiator. We argue that each falls short of providing an adequate framework for future research, policy, and practice. Instead we offer an alternative metaphor, that of a social enterprise zoo; many different “animals” combine social and market goals in substantially different ways and each species has distinct environments and needs. Using the metaphor we consider the important components of a meaningful research agenda and examine the place of social entrepreneurs within the social enterprise zoo.”

 

 

AUTRES

Other / Otros

 

A Place for Organisational Critical Consciousness: Comparing Two Cases Studies of Freirean Nonprofits

Rolf Straubhaar. Comparative Education, volume 50, issue 4, pages 433-447, October 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/
abs/10.1080/03050068.2014.884823#
.VDUQmBYvyHs

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “One of the primary goals of Freirean theory is the achievement of a higher level of political and social consciousness amongst participants in educational programming. Freire himself only loosely defined this sense of consciousness, and interpretations of how this abstract concept might look vary widely. In some organisations, the politically radical goals of Freirean facilitators do not match the desired outcomes of participants. Other organisations may use Freirean methods to pursue their programming, but without subscribing to Freire's revolutionary educational project. This article provides case study examples of both extremes in Brazil and Mozambique, concluding with the argument that applying Freire's notion of critical consciousness organisationally can help to make sense of the diversity of interpretation among Freirean nonprofits.”

 

Stimulating Learning about Social Entrepreneurship through Income Generation Projects

Jane Yann Ching Chang, Abdelhafid Benamraoui and Alison Rieple. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, volume 20, number 5, pages 417-435, August 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
doi/full/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2012-0111

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of income generation projects as a pedagogic method to assess students’ learning about social enterprises. The authors are interested in how and why this innovative approach might improve students’ understanding of the different aspects and attributes of social entrepreneurship. The study used thematic analysis of qualitative data comprising the reflective logs of 87 students on an undergraduate entrepreneurship module in a university business programme. The major attributes of social entrepreneurship were identified from a review of literature, and the paper uses the logs to judge whether students had learnt about these attributes. The results show that students developed an understanding concerning social enterprises’ diverse stakeholder environment, market needs, social enterprises’ ideological foundations, resource mobilisation processes and performance measurement – both social and financial. In addition, they developed skills in reflection and self-awareness, communication, empathy and the generation of new ideas. He study is limited in that it focused on only one cohort of students, undergraduates. The authors cannot claim that the findings are generalisable to other students or contexts. Students are better able to understand the needs and values of social enterprises. However, this is a resource intensive process for educators with implications for curriculum design and management. This study sheds new light on how experiential learning helps to raise students’ awareness of social enterprises. This study sheds new light on how experiential learning in the form of income generation projects helps to raise students’ awareness of social enterprises. Its value lies in helping to develop a novel and effective pedagogy for entrepreneurial learning.”

 

Co-Operatives and Education in the Basque Country: the Ikastolas in the Final Years of Franco’s Dictatorship

Ander Delgado. <