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ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 11, NUMÉRO 3, MARS 2016

Pour le format PDF, cliquer ici!

TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

The Extended Governance of Cooperative Firms: Inter-firm Coordination and Consistency of Value

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

What Determinants Affect the Capital Structure of Consumer Co-operatives? The Case of iCOOP Korea

Le financement de l’économie sociale au Québec

Réseau de la finance solidaire et responsable au Québec : Co-construction d’un champ institutionnel dans l’écosystème d’économie sociale et solidaire

The Emergence of Winemaking Cooperatives in Catalonia

Social Renewal Through the Rural: Agricultural Cooperatives in South Korea as a Form of Critiquing Capitalism

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

Social Impact Measurement: Why do Stakeholders Matter?

Are Financial and Social Efficiency Mutually Exclusive? A Case Study of Vietnamese Microfinance Institutions

What About the Social Efficiency in Credit Cooperatives? Evidence from Spain (2008–2014)

What Helped Nonprofits Weather the Great Recession?

Gestion

Management / Gestión

The Employment Structure of Cooperative Banks – A Test of Institutional Hypotheses

Social Capital among Members in Grain Marketing Cooperatives of Different Sizes

Comparison of Job Satisfaction Between Nonprofit and Public Employees

Managed Morality: The Rise of Professional Codes of Conduct in the U.S. Nonprofit Sector

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Social Innovations in the Urban Context (Book)

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

Nonprofit Influence on Public Policy: Exploring Nonprofit Advocacy in Russia

Public, Private or Neither? Analysing the publicness of health care social enterprises

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

Économie sociale et solidaire et entrepreneur social: vers quels nouveaux écosystèmes ?

Social Enterprise – A New Phenomenon in the Field of Economic and Social Welfare?

Tip of the Iceberg: The Nonprofit Underpinnings of For-Profit Social Enterprise

Les promesses théoriques des recherches sur les initiatives solidaires : l’exemple du délibéralisme

AUTRES

Other / Otros

L’économie sociale et solidaire. Une histoire de la société civile en France et en Europe de 1968 à nos jours (Livre)

(Biens) communs, quel avenir ? Un enjeu stratégique pour l'économie sociale et solidaire (Livre)

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Social Entrepreneurship, Social Innovation and Business Ethics

Économie sociale et solidaire : ses écosystèmes

VARIA

Changement d'échelle des innovations. Ensemble, accélérons!

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions / Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

The Extended Governance of Cooperative Firms: Inter-firm Coordination and Consistency of Value

Silvia Scchetti and Ermanno Tortia. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 1, pages 93- 116, March 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111
/apce.12058/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This work aims at providing a framework for the analysis of governance in networks of cooperative firms. It builds on four bodies of literature: cooperation, transaction costs, monopoly capitalism, production networks. The framework associates the specific principles that define the identity of cooperative organizations (self-help, member ownership, democratic control, financial participation, limited capital remuneration) alongside more general governance levels (embodied values, property rights, control, resource allocation). We then apply the same dimensions to production networks and propose a stylized networking model for cooperatives. We introduce market power, and identify two polarized types of networks: (1) heterarchical forms of coordination based on cooperation and mutual help, (2) hierarchical coordination based on exclusive direction. We compare both types with our normative framework providing examples and brief case studies for each network type. Recommendations to scholars and practitioners point at the opportunity to discriminate inter-firm relations and production development strategy in terms of the values of cooperation, at all governance levels.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

What Determinants Affect the Capital Structure of Consumer Co-operatives? The Case of iCOOP Korea

Jinseon Seo and Woosuk Choi. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 1, pages 117- 135, March 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/
apce.12088/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The capital structure of co-operatives can differ from that of IOB (Investor-Owned Businesses) since the two organizations differ in their aims, governance structures and decision-making principles. This paper examines whether the determinants verified in IOB affect the leverage ratio of consumer co-operatives. Consumer co-operatives in South Korea have been rapidly growing during the last decade. There are two leading theories in finance that explain capital structure: the trade-off and pecking order theories. Focusing on consumer co-operatives in South Korea, the paper aims to analyze empirically what determinants have effect on the capital structure of consumer co-operatives and which of the two theories is more plausible. This study reveals that profitability and firm size have a significantly negative effect on leverage while tangibility and growth have a significantly positive effect on it. In conclusion, it seems that neither of the theories above perfectly accounts for the capital structure of consumer co-operatives because of the differences in governance characteristics between consumer co-operatives and IOB as well as in the costs of bankruptcy, agency, informational asymmetry and securities issuance.”

 

Le financement de l’économie sociale au Québec

Claude Dorion. CIRIEC International, Working paper CIRIEC, issue 2016/1, 34 pages, February 2016

http://www.ciriec.ulg.ac.be/wp-content/uploads
/2016/01/WP2016-01versionprsite.pdf

Résumé issue de l’URL ci-haut : « L’économie sociale québécoise a connu un essor important au cours des trente dernières années. Ce développement a été soutenu par une stratégie de soutien aux entreprises du secteur reconnaissant leur valeur à titre d’associations remplissant une mission sociale claire et pertinente et aussi à titre d’entreprises collectives opérant de manière efficiente une activité économique. Ce secteur a été soutenu par un écosystème de financement structurant à la fois la demande de fonds prêtables par l’apport de services techniques professionnels et l’offre des mêmes fonds par un ensemble complémentaire d’institutions offrant des produits financiers distincts. L’État a joué un rôle central dans la construction de cet écosystème en proposant des leviers réglementaires, fiscaux et de contribution directe toujours à la recherche d’effets de levier stimulant l’intervention financière de la société civile, des épargnants individuels et du secteur privé. »

 

Réseau de la finance solidaire et responsable au Québec : Co-construction d’un champ institutionnel dans l’écosystème d’économie sociale et solidaire

Tassadit Zerdani et Marie J. Bouchard. Revue Interventions Économiques, issue 54, 17 pages, mars 2016.

https://interventionseconomiques.revues.org/2727#article-2727

Résumé issue de l’URL ci-haut : « Cet article montre le rôle des acteurs et de leurs regroupements dans l’émergence et le développement d’un écosystème de l’économie sociale et solidaire à travers l’analyse du cas du secteur de la finance solidaire et responsable au Québec et du réseau que forment certains de ses acteurs. En se basant sur les données d’une étude longitudinale, l’article décrit les principaux acteurs du secteur et analyse le processus d’institutionnalisation de leur réseau. Ce cas illustre comment les actions de réseautage permettent de coconstruire et de développer un champ institutionnel nouveau, différent du champ financier traditionnel et montre que, par la formalisation de leur réseau, les acteurs de la finance solidaire et responsable visent non seulement le développement et la pérennité de leurs propres organisations, mais aussi ceux de l’écosystème d’économie sociale et solidaire du Québec, notamment par l’influence des politiques publiques. »

 

The Emergence of Winemaking Cooperatives in Catalonia

Planas Jordi. Business History, volume 58, issue 2, pages 264-282, February 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg
/bh/2016/00000058/00000002/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This article traces the emergence of winemaking cooperatives in Catalonia, one of southern Europe’s main winegrowing regions. It analyses the stimuli that led to the creation of winemaking cooperatives in the early twentieth century and the difficulties that they faced in a depressed wine market, such as financing the construction of winemaking facilities, the governance and organisation of cooperative services, and marketing their produce. I explore the reasons why many more wine cooperatives were created in Catalonia in early twentieth century than in Spain’s other winegrowing regions and I try to identify the obstacles that hindered their further development.”

 

Social Renewal Through the Rural: Agricultural Cooperatives in South Korea as a Form of Critiquing Capitalism

Park L. Albert. Global Environment, volume 9, issue 1, pages 82-107, January 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/whp/ge
/2016/00000009/00000001/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Although modernist discourse has emphasised industry and the urban over agriculture and the rural, this article proposes that this view of the rural as traditional and conservative is inaccurate; rather, the rural can serve as a powerful tool for critiquing capitalism. Contemporary agricultural and food movements, such as agricultural cooperatives in South Korea, are in the process of imagining alternative systems of working and living. Because they push for economic equality, intimate social exchanges, a harmonious relationship between humanity and the environment and a spatial equality between the city and country, these movements show how the rural has become a resource for reimagining new paths of fruitful social development and a symbol of hope for both urban and rural inhabitants.”

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

Social Impact Measurement: Why do Stakeholders Matter?

Costa Ericka and Pesci Caterina. Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, volume 7, issue 1, pages 99-124, March 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/sampj
/2016/00000007/00000001/art00005

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This paper aims to discuss the notion of social impact measurement in social enterprises by supporting the multiple-constituency theory as a contribution to this under-theorised issue. Moreover, the paper proposes the stakeholder-based approach as the most appropriate solution for selection among metrics related to the growing number of social impact measurements. The paper proposes a review of social impact measurement studies by considering contributions from both academia and practitioners, while providing a reassessment and conceptualisation of this issue in terms of the multiple-constituency theory.  It criticises the “golden standard approach” to social impact measurement according to which social enterprises have to find one standardised metric capable of determining an organisation’s real impact. The golden standard approach promotes a more “political view” of social enterprises, according to which multiple stakeholders set performance standards based on their viewpoints regarding the measurement’s purposes.  The paper responds to the urgent call to define a theoretical framework that might guide social impact measurement, seeking to avoid the current lack of order and transparency in existing practices that could serve as a vehicle for camouflaging corporate social un-sustainability.  he multiple-constituency approach should discourage organisations from opportunistically selecting a social impact measurement with the sole purpose of proving a higher impact, as, within the proposed new perspective, social impact metrics are no longer managed independently by the social enterprises themselves. Instead, these metrics are defined and constructed with the stakeholders. As a result, social enterprises’ manipulative intentions should diminish.”

 

Are Financial and Social Efficiency Mutually Exclusive? A Case Study of Vietnamese Microfinance Institutions

Maxime Lebovics, Niels Hermes and Marek Hudon. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 1, pages 55–77, March 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12085/abstract m

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: A major debate in microfinance focuses on the existence of a trade-off between the financial sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs) and their outreach to poor clients. This paper adds to this debate by analyzing whether financial and social efficiency are mutually exclusive in a context of implicit subsidies by the state and international donors. We use data from a sample of 28 Vietnamese MFIs and apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to identify the existence of a trade-off. Our analysis shows that for Vietnamese MFIs financial and social efficiency are not related. We interpret this as evidence for the fact that there is no support to believe that there is such a trade-off. Subsidies, based on which most Vietnamese MFIs currently operate, helps them to show high financial efficiency, while at the same time being able to attain their social goals. Nevertheless, this model may not be sustainable in the long-term.”

 

What About the Social Efficiency in Credit Cooperatives? Evidence from Spain (2008–2014)  

Martínez-Campillo A., Y. Fernández-Santos.  Social Indicators Research, pages 1-23 (article in press), February 2016.

http://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-
84958774811&origin=SingleRecordEmailAlert&txGid=0

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Credit cooperatives are financial intermediaries that pay attention to social criteria. Thus, if such entities want to survive and thrive in the new international context, they cannot ignore their inefficiencies in both the financial and social dimensions of their activity. However, previous research on efficiency in credit cooperatives is very limited and only considers their financial activity. To date, no study has been published giving evidence through indicators on whether these banking institutions are socially efficient. This paper therefore constructs a social efficiency index of Spanish credit cooperatives during the period 2008–2014 and examines its main explanatory factors. After applying a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis approach, the results from the first stage indicate that, on average, the social efficiency of Spanish credit cooperatives reaches an acceptable level of 66.42 %. Second-stage truncated regression reveals that entities with a greater proportion of branches in urban areas are socially less efficient, whereas both their size and the number of service points have a positive effect. Interestingly, social efficiency also varies significantly depending on the regional location of credit cooperatives in Spain. As a result, our findings enable these Social Economy financial institutions to both know their performance relative to their social activity and use this information to improve their competitiveness in the future.”

 

What Helped Nonprofits Weather the Great Recession?

Lin Weiwei,Wang Qiushi. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 26, issue 3, pages 257-276, March 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/nml
/2016/00000026/00000003/art00002

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This study examined the effectiveness of several financial strategies for nonprofit organizations in fighting the Great Recession. Using data from human services and community improvement organizations in the state of New Jersey, we tested hypotheses about the relationships between three measures of financial sustainability and various fundraising efforts and financial indicators. We found that (1) except for strong external funding relationships, funding efforts were generally not effective in enhancing financial sustainability during the crisis; (2) higher operating margin and equity ratio improved an organization's ability to generate revenue and maintain expense levels, but higher debt ratio and administrative cost ratio were generally harmful; and (3) revenue diversification might aggravate fiscal stress and cause more expense cuts in a severe crisis. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanics of nonprofit management during times of harsh fiscal conditions and suggest useful ways for nonprofit organizations to navigate future financial crises.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

The Employment Structure of Cooperative Banks – A Test of Institutional Hypotheses

Mario Bossler and Christopher-Johannes Schild. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 1, pages 79-92, March 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111
/apce.12084/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: We study the claim that, because of their institutional design, current cooperative banks differ in their employment decisions compared to other conventional banks. The success of cooperative banks in the past was grounded on efficiency advantages generated through peer-monitoring, social sanctions, and institutional trust. Institutional economic theory and anecdotal historical evidence suggest that these core institutional mechanisms also had an effect on the employment structure of early credit cooperatives. By examining the employment structure of current cooperative banks, we aim to provide insights to the question of how and to what extent original institutional mechanisms of credit cooperatives may still be functional. We use administrative establishment data from Germany and compare employment structures of banks by legal form. The results indicate that cooperative banks in comparison with otherwise similar private and savings banks are characterized by more stable employment, an older workforce, more extensive training activities, and a more homogeneous composition of employees.”

 

Social Capital among Members in Grain Marketing Cooperatives of Different Sizes

Feng Li, Friis Anna, Nilsson Jerker. Agribusiness, volume 32, issue 1, pages 113-126, January 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl
/agr/2016/00000032/00000001/art00008

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: According to social capital theory, small cooperatives with simple business operations have more social capital in their membership than large, complex cooperatives. The geographical and social proximity among members, and between members and leadership, fosters social capital. This proposition is investigated empirically using data from member surveys in three Swedish farm supply and grain marketing cooperatives that vary greatly in size, from about 36,000 to 1,600 and 150 members. The findings strongly support the view that the smaller the cooperative, the higher the social capital, expressed in terms of members’ involvement, trust, satisfaction, and loyalty.”

 

Comparison of Job Satisfaction Between Nonprofit and Public Employees

Young-joo Lee. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 2, pages 295-313, April 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/2/295?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The dissimilarities in governance, clientele, and organizational imperatives between the nonprofit and public sectors suggest that understanding employee job satisfaction requires distinction between the two. This study examines similarities and differences in what affects managers’ job satisfaction in nonprofit and public organizations, focusing on managers’ perception of their organization, job, and top management. While the results suggest that pride in the organization is a determining factor of managers’ job satisfaction in both sectors, they also reveal that certain attributes of job satisfaction influence managers’ job satisfaction differently between the two sectors. In particular, the findings suggest that nonprofit organizations should establish clear definitions of employees’ tasks and roles and allow employees more autonomy to increase their job satisfaction.”

 

Managed Morality: The Rise of Professional Codes of Conduct in the U.S. Nonprofit Sector

Patricia Bromley and Charlene D. Orchard.  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 2, pages 351-374, April 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/2/351?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Calls for accountability in the nonprofit sector have never been stronger, and the rise of various forms of self-regulation represents a profound shift for nonprofits. Existing studies tend to focus on effective design and implementation of accountability policies, with an eye toward improving nonprofit efficiency and reducing instances of misconduct. Against this backdrop, we draw on sociological institutionalism to theorize an alternative view of one form of self-regulation, formal codes of conduct or ethical codes. In this view, formal policies, such as codes, are assumed to be adopted as a response to pressures in an organization’s institutional environment, beyond their purported instrumental value. Using a quantitative analysis of code adoption by 24 of 45 state nonprofit associations over the period 1994 to 2011, we provide evidence that codes arise due to general environmental conditions, particularly related to the influences of neoliberalism and professionalization, net of the functional demands of any particular context.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Social Innovations in the Urban Context (Book)

Taco Brandsen, Sandro Cattacin, Adalbert Evers and Annette Zimmer. Springer Edition, 1st edition, 313 pages, April 2016.

http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319215501

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This book addresses the practice of social innovation, which is currently very much in the public eye. New ideas and approaches are needed to tackle the severe and wicked problems with which contemporary societies are struggling. Especially in times of economic crisis, social innovation is regarded as one of the crucial elements needed to move forward. Our knowledge of its dynamics has significantly progressed, thanks to an abundance of studies on social innovation both general and sector-specific. However, despite the valuable research conducted over the past years, the systematic analysis of social innovation is still contested and incomplete. The questions asked in the book will be the following: What is the nature of social innovations? What patterns can be identified in social innovations emerging at the local level? How is the emergence and spread of social innovations related to urban governance? More precisely, which conditions and arrangements facilitate and hinders social innovation?”

 

 

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

 

Nonprofit Influence on Public Policy: Exploring Nonprofit Advocacy in Russia

Sergej Ljubownikow and Jo Crotty. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 45, issue 2, pages 314-332, April 2016.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/45/2/314?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This article examines the advocacy tactics of Russian nonprofits. While Russian nonprofits and their activities have been widely researched, specific insight into their use of advocacy tactics remains limited. In this article, we address this gap by broadening the understanding of how Russian nonprofits engage in advocacy. To do so we engage both Mosley’s indirect/insider framework and qualitative data collected from health and education nonprofits (HEnonprofits) in three Russian industrial regions. We demonstrate that Russian HEnonprofits, while having access to various advocacy tactics, fail to use them effectively. They are instead used for organizational maintenance and case/client advocacy. In conclusion, we discuss a potential typology of advocacy tactics in Russia, the usefulness of Mosley’s framework in this context and the implications of the failure to advocate for democratization within the Russian Federation.”

 

Public, Private or Neither? Analysing the publicness of health care social enterprises

Hall Miller Millar. Public Management Review, volume 18, issue 4, pages 539-557, April 2016.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/
routledg/rpxm/2016/00000018/00000004/art00003

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Social enterprises have been actively encouraged to spin out of the National Health Service (NHS) on the grounds that they can deliver more innovative, cost-efficient and responsive services. This is arguably achieved through a combination of the best of the public, third and private sectors. This article explores this idea by bringing together empirical data from interviews with NHS spin-outs and a framework of ‘publicness’. By focusing on NHS spin-outs, we look at what happens to an organization’s publicness when it leaves the public sector yet continues to deliver publicly funded services.”