ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 10, NUMÉRO 3, MARS 2015

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

Exploring Board Interlocking Behaviour between Nonprofit Organizations

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

Relevance of Systems Thinking and Scientific Holism to Social Entrepreneurship

Reintegrating Socially Excluded Individuals through a Social Enterprise Intervention

Green Care: Social Entrepreneurs in the Agricultural Sector

Social Enterprise as Poverty Reducing Strategy for Women

Conociendo al inversor social privado local: un estudio en la región de la Gran Florianópolis

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

Measuring the Growth of the Nonprofit Sector: A Longitudinal Analysis

The Determinants of Outreach Performance of Social Business: an Inquiry on Italian Social Cooperatives

Gestion

Management / Gestión

The Critical Role of Internal Marketing in Knowledge Management in Not-for-Profit Organizations

Advancing Paradox Resolution Theory for Interpreting Non-Profit, Commercial, Entrepreneurial strategies

Exploration of Motivational Drivers towards Social Entrepreneurship

La cooperativa Fagor Ederlan: el ‘lean manufacturing’ como modelo de gestión

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

La legislación cooperativa latinoamericana en el marco del Plan para une Década Cooperativa de la Alianza Cooperativa Internacional

La función social de las cooperativas: notas de derecho comparado

Las limitaciones jurídicas de la cooperativa en el socialismo. Perspectivas para el perfeccionamiento de su regulación en Cuba

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

‘Conscience Capitalism’ and the Neoliberalisation of the Non-Profit Sector

Solidarity Economy and Social Business (book)

Handbook on the Economics of Reciprocity and Social Enterprise (book)

Personality Trait Differences between Traditional and Social Entrepreneurs

The Third Sector in Europe: towards a Consensus Conceptualization Analysis

AUTRES

Other / Otros

Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Governance of Non-Profit and Non-Governmental Organizations - Within– and Between- Organization Analyses

Las sociedades cooperativas construyen un mundo mejor

VARIA

Changer d’échelle. Manuel pour maximiser l’impact des entreprises sociales

ACTIVITÉS DE RECHERCHE ET DE FORMATION

Research and formation activities / Actividades de investigación y formación

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

Exploring Board Interlocking Behaviour between Nonprofit Organizations

Jurgen Willems, Stijn Van Puyvelde, Marc Jegers, Tim Vantilborgh, Jemima Bide and Roland Pepermans. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 86, issue 1, pages 73-88, March 2015.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/apce.12067/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Directors on boards of nonprofit organizations can have additional director positions in other nonprofit organizations. When several of these interlocking directors exist for a group of nonprofit organizations, a board network is formed. We investigate to what extent similarity between organizations in terms of size, funding structure and operational activities relates to the presence of shared board members between organizations. For a network of 610 organizations we test and confirm that board networks are not formed at random, but that similarity of organizational characteristics explains interlocking behaviour, and that clusters of similar organizations exist within the overall nonprofit sector. Given this observation we propose three areas for further research. In particular we discuss opportunities regarding potential effects of network clustering, the causal direction of the relationship found, and the complementarity of the board network to other social networks in the nonprofit sector.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

Relevance of Systems Thinking and Scientific Holism to Social Entrepreneurship

Chitvan Trivedi and Shalini Misra. Journal of Entrepreneurship, volume 24, issue 1, pages 37-62, March 2015.

http://joe.sagepub.com/
content/24/1/37?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social enterprises are said to meet two conditions—they address long-standing social problems, and they develop innovative solutions to do so. However, many social enterprises satisfy these two conditions but are unsuccessful in creating sustained positive social change. This article argues that a necessary condition for social enterprises to create and sustain social change is the ability to cognise the ecology of the social problem—the relationship and interaction between a social problem and its context. This article scrutinises how social enterprises conceptualise and address social problems by applying the principles of scientific holism and systems thinking to social entrepreneurial theory and practice. It presents social problem archetypes and develops key lessons for devising effective strategies for addressing social problems.”

 

Reintegrating Socially Excluded Individuals through a Social Enterprise Intervention

Fred Seddon, Richard Hazenberg and Simon Denny. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 3, pages 222-238, December 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
abs/10.1108/SEJ-08-2013-0034

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The aim of this research project is to reveal participant perceptions of a Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) programme, run by a social enterprise and designed to reintegrate socially excluded individuals into society. The research participants were the social entrepreneur, staff at the social enterprise, the SEI programme attendees and a representative from an external referral agency. Participants engaged in semi-structured interviews with a researcher designed to elicit participant perceptions of the programme. Results of the analysis of the interviews revealed six emergent themes that were interpreted by the researchers as: “social mission focus”, “heroic social entrepreneur”, “social impact”, “recidivism”, “the programme” and “programme attendees”. Results of the analysis reveal that all research participants reported the programme helped to re-socialise the programme attendees and increased their self-confidence and self-esteem. Participants also believed programme attendees acquired important skills and qualifications in general warehouse activities and forklift truck driving, which would greatly increase their future employability. Programme attendees indicated the “real world” working environment was important to their feelings of success on the programme. This paper identifies a hybrid SEI programme based upon the “vision” of a “heroic” social entrepreneur. It also identifies the advantages of the “real” working environment in increasing the employability of socially excluded individuals whilst, at the same time, increasing their social skills.”

 

Green Care: Social Entrepreneurs in the Agricultural Sector

Pia Heike Johansen. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 3, pages 268-287, December 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
abs/10.1108/SEJ-03-2014-0019

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to provide a sector-based analysis of the drivers for social entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector. The paper uses qualitative data from two studies in the Danish region of Northern Jutland. The data include responses from 38 farmers who offered or had considered offering social services. Strong and consistent tools for the categorisation of farmers’ social entrepreneurship have been developed. However, these tools have merely been used descriptively rather than to create proactive agriculture policies to facilitate social entrepreneurship. In Region Northern Jutland social entrepreneurship in farming is driven by a combination of tradition, close relationships and coincidence. It is ad hoc, with each initiative starting from scratch because no knowledge or experience has been gathered or distributed. A study of social entrepreneurship among farmers has not yet been coupled with a sector-based analytical framework. This paper contributes to the literature of social entrepreneurship by supplementing with an agricultural sector-based approach.”

 

Social Enterprise as Poverty Reducing Strategy for Women

Sarah Fotheringham and Chad Saunders. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 3, pages 176-199, December 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
abs/10.1108/SEJ-06-2013-0028

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of social enterprise as a strategy for poverty reduction for women. A literature synthesis on the topic was conducted and patterns, linkages and gaps were examined among key themes to identify how social enterprise can potentially serve as a poverty reduction strategy for women. The paper presents the findings in terms of specific factors contributing to women’s poverty and hypothesizes mechanisms through which social enterprises can mitigate or address these factors in practice. The paper organizes these findings in an integrative framework that highlights the need to ensure a solid policy foundation is in place before a number of key support mechanisms are enabled, which then facilitate specific types of work that can then grow in a sustainable manner. Women are disproportionately burdened by poverty and the framework presented provides a very practical tool to guide the design of new or diagnosing existing social enterprises targeting poverty reduction for women. Without a strategic approach, the risk is either perpetuating the status quo, or worse, placing those women engaged in social enterprises in a worse financial and social position.”

 

El encaje de la economía social en la nueva gobernanza económica y social de la UE    

Laura Gómez Urquijo. CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economia Pública, Social y Cooperativa, nº 82, pp. 233-252, Diciembre 2014.

http://www.ciriec-revistaeconomia.es/
banco/CIRIEC_8209_Gomez.pdf

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el papel dado a la economía social en los últimos planteamientos de la UE surgidos tras la crisis. Después del lanzamiento de la Estrategia 2020, y ante las dificultades para cumplir sus objetivos debido a la crisis, nos fijamos en la puesta en marcha de la nueva arquitectura de gobernanza en la UE. Centrada en un primer momento en la disciplina fiscal, incluye progresivamente metas sociales cuyo cumplimiento supervisa y condiciona; el control del gasto y las distintas recomendaciones de coordinación de políticas sociales y económicas dan un marco que afecta a la economía social. En este sentido, atendemos a las diferentes iniciativas que inciden en la promoción de valores sociales en el mercado y a las que específicamente asignan una función a la economía social en la búsqueda de respuestas a la crisis.”

 

Conociendo al inversor social privado local: un estudio en la región de la Gran Florianópolis             

Carolina Andion, Danilo José Alano Melo & Elaine Cristina de Oliveira Menezes. CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economia Pública, Social y Cooperativa, nº 82, pp. 179-205, Diciembre 2014.

http://www.ciriec-revistaeconomia.es/
banco/CIRIEC_8207_Andion_et_al.pdf

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “Este artículo sintetiza los resultados de la investigación desarrollada en la región de la Gran Florianópolis en Brasil y que tuvo como objetivos comprender el perfil sociodemográfico de los inversores sociales, conocer las características de las inversiones realizadas por los mismos, examinar cómo se desarrolla su relación con los beneficiarios, además de entender sus motivaciones y expectativas. Así, en un segundo momento se analizan los patrones de Inversión Social Privada (ISP) practicados en el ámbito local y se verifica en qué medida esa práctica contribuye para promover la participación cívica. La metodología utilizada fue de carácter cuantitativa, con la aplicación de 1155 cuestionarios a los individuos y de 43 cuestionarios para las organizaciones de diferentes sectores de la región. Los resultados obtenidos fueron analizados en su conjunto, evidenciando los desafíos de la gestión de la ISP, las perspectivas y los límites de esta práctica como vector de la participación cívica.”

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

Measuring the Growth of the Nonprofit Sector: A Longitudinal Analysis

Seok Eun Kim and You Hyun Kim. Public Administration Review, volume 75, issue 2, pages 242-251, March 2015.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/puar.12306/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Scholars have examined the effects of various environmental factors on the nonprofit sector to elucidate the role of nonprofits in modern society. However, researchers report a paucity of information on nonprofit growth using longitudinal data, especially outside the United States. This article analyzes 40 years of political, economic, and sociodemographic data in South Korea to test theories of nonprofit growth and to determine whether the concepts and theories developed for Western societies can be successfully applied in South Korea. The results show that demand- and supply-side economic theories account for variations in nonprofit growth, but the existing socioeconomic explanations fail to recognize the political influences on nonprofit development. Nonprofit organizations have emerged from social and economic necessity but have also been nurtured within a political framework.”

 

The Determinants of Outreach Performance of Social Business: an Inquiry on Italian Social Cooperatives

Leonardo Becchetti and Fabio Pisani. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 86, issue 1, pages 105-136, March 2015.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/apce.12069/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “We analyze factors affecting outreach performance of a large sample of (type A) social cooperatives in Italy taking into account their heterogeneity with a multi-output stochastic distance function frontier. We find that cooperative age, innovation leading to new products/customer segments, managerial turnover, target programming and shareholder variety are positively and significantly (while shareholder meetings, the number of volunteers and of contracts negatively and significantly) correlated with outreach performance, measured as the capacity of serving more beneficiaries given labour and capital inputs. Outreach is also significantly and positively affected by local GDP and human capital.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

The Critical Role of Internal Marketing in Knowledge Management in Not-for-Profit Organizations

Craig Hume and Margee Hume. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, volume 27, issue 1, pages 23-47, January 2015.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/10495142.2014.934567#.VPXaiXyG8gA

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Australian not-for-profit (NFP) organizations are knowledge-intensive enterprises, but most struggle with knowledge management (KM), while at the same time identifying it as an increasingly important activity they must improve for an increasingly competitive and demanding environment. Replicating “corporate” best KM practices is often misaligned with NFPs’ unique cultures, finances, operations, and missions. This article advances previous work presented in this journal and highlights the importance of internal management practices as vital for success. This article draws from NFP research in knowledge and explores a key enabler (internal marketing) that has been overlooked for building a critical link between NFP staff/volunteers and the organization for building and sustaining KM in an NFP environment. Using in-depth interviewing (32 interviews) and an online survey (179 respondents), this article examines the elements of internal marketing’s benefit/value propositions to staff and the importance of personal relevance. Further, the article also explores the value of socialization strategies (such as communities of practice) as effective internal marketing channels.”

 

Advancing Paradox Resolution Theory for Interpreting Non-Profit, Commercial, Entrepreneurial strategies

Stephen Lloyd and Arch G. Woodside. Journal of Strategic Marketing, volume 23, number 1, pages 3-18, January 2015.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/0965254X.2014.914064#.VQGn-HyG8gA

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study examines the commercial strategies of two non-profit organizations (NPOs) and the alignment of their values and identity while pursuing commercial entrepreneurial strategies. The research uses qualitative, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews conducted in the context of the informants' daily lives and work. The research indicates the value of the alignment of organizational identity with commercial activities as a means for paradox resolution. Lérins and St John are cases of NPOs that engage in strategic choice. Research has yet to examine the role of organizational identity alignment in examining paradox resolution among NPOs. The NPOs engage in strategic choice for which continuous reference to enactment with core values is an important influence on strategic brand-community building behaviour.”

 

Exploration of Motivational Drivers towards Social Entrepreneurship

Adesuwa Omorede. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 3, pages 239-267, December 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/
10.1108/SEJ-03-2013-0014

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper aims to explore the reasons behind individuals’ motivational drivers to start social enterprises in Nigeria and their persistence in the entrepreneurial process. By presenting an emergent model, the paper aims to provide more understanding on why certain individuals devote their efforts in addressing nagging issues and tackling longstanding inefficiencies in communities and societies. The findings show that local conditions such as widespread ignorance and unscientific beliefs together with the individual’s intentional mindset are contributing factors, which explain engagement in starting a social enterprise. It is further suggested that the combination of local conditions and intentional mindset, in turn, triggers the individuals’ passion for a cause that is facilitated by the support provided from their social network, which both seem to be important for maintaining persistence in the oftentimes challenging situation of being a social entrepreneur. This study makes two significant contributions to the literature of social entrepreneurship. First, the study presents an emergent model that introduces specific empirically grounded reasons toward individuals’ drives and motives for starting and persisting in social entrepreneurship. Second, the study adds to the development of literature by highlighting the importance of contextual factors when studying social entrepreneurship and also provides explanations for the significant role of passion for social entrepreneurial activities.”

 

La cooperativa Fagor Ederlan: el ‘lean manufacturing’ como modelo de gestión             

Rafael Altuna y Eguzki Urteaga. CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economia Pública, Social y Cooperativa, nº 82, pp. 29-64, Diciembre 2014.

http://www.ciriec-revistaeconomia.es/
banco/CIRIEC_8202_Altuna_Urteaga.pdf

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “Este artículo analiza la manera en que la cooperativa Fagor Ederlan, del Grupo Mondragón, ha implementado y desarrollado su propio modelo y dinámica de gestión, en el marco del Modelo de Gestión Corporativo. Subraya que el Modelo de Gestión aplicado ha estado orientado al logro de la eficiencia económica y, para ello, se optó por la aplicación de sistemas de producción ajustado - ‘lean production’. La aplicación de ese sistema de producción ha traído consigo el logro de altos niveles de eficiencia económica pero también de tensiones sociales. Si ese Modelo de Gestión ha tratado de generar un nuevo significado organizacional de carácter más empresarial, su implantación se ha realizado con poca participación por parte de los trabajadores de la cooperativa, de manera ortodoxa y sin considerar suficientemente los rasgos cognitivos, normativos y reguladores de la organización, lo que explica en parte las tensiones sociales generadas. En ese sentido, el Modelo de Gestión en Fagor Ederlan no ha respondido a las expectativas generadas en el seno de la cooperativa en cuanto a sistema superador de las dinámicas de carácter Taylorista. De hecho, las técnicas de ‘lean production’ han supuesto una mayor exigencia y esfuerzo para los trabajadores, que no se han visto recompensados y, por tanto, su grado de satisfacción en el trabajo se ve afectado negativamente. Asimismo, las técnicas y herramientas aplicadas han dificultado la participación y el enriquecimiento de las tareas a realizar por parte de los trabajadores, dado que están determinadas de manera rígida, dando pocas posibilidades a la participación, y repetitiva, limitando la creatividad en la aplicación del conocimiento.”

 

 

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

 

La legislación cooperativa latinoamericana en el marco del Plan para une Década Cooperativa de la Alianza Cooperativa Internacional

Dante Cracogna. REVESCO, Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, 117, pp. 12-33, Primer Cuatrimestre 2015.

http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/
revesco/DetalleArticulo.php?IdPublicacion=372

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “El artículo comienza destacando la importancia de la legislación para el desarrollo de las cooperativas fundándose en el Plan para una Década Cooperativa aprobado por la ACI en su Congreso de Manchester 2012 con el que se clausuró el Año Internacional de las Cooperativas proclamado por las Naciones Unidas bajo el lema “Las cooperativas ayudan a construir un mundo mejor”. A partir de allí se ocupa del tratamiento del tema en la propia ACI y en los organismos internacionales para luego referirse a la legislación cooperativa en América Latina analizando sus principales problemas y tendencias actuales dentro del contexto antes desarrollado. Por último, como elementos coadyuvantes al logro de los objetivos del Plan en materia de legislación cooperativa, considera el Proyecto de Ley Marco para las Cooperativas de América Latina y los mecanismos de colaboración establecidos por la ACI Américas y organizaciones cooperativas nacionales con los parlamentarios de la región.”

 

La función social de las cooperativas: notas de derecho comparado

Antonio Fici. REVESCO, Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, 117, pp. 77-98, Primer Cuatrimestre 2015.

http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/
revesco/DetalleArticulo.php?IdPublicacion
=380#.VQGz13yG8gA

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “Muchas Constituciones en el mundo atribuyen una función social a las sociedades cooperativas y prevén que el legislador las promueva. La ley y las instituciones europeas suelen incluir a las cooperativas en las entidades de la economía social que los poderes públicos tienen la tarea de fomentar. Para que estas normas puedan considerarse legítimas a la luz del principio constitucional de igualdad ante la ley, las cooperativas deberán poseer una identidad jurídica distinta de la de otras sociedades. Este artículo se propone identificar los principales elementos de la identidad jurídica de la cooperativa que la hacen un tipo de sociedad digna de específica tutela y trato privilegiado en la Constitución y por parte de la ley. Además, el artículo tratará de la distinción entre cooperativas mutualistas y cooperativas de interés general a la luz del problema de la regulación de la “empresa social”.”

 

Las limitaciones jurídicas de la cooperativa en el socialismo. Perspectivas para el perfeccionamiento de su regulación en Cuba

Orestes Rodríguez Musa y Orisel Hernández Aguilar. REVESCO, Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, 117, pp. 99-124, Primer Cuatrimestre 2015.

http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/
revesco/DetalleArticulo.php?IdPublicacion
=371#.VQG02XyG8gA

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “En el presente trabajo se ofrece una valoración de las transformaciones legales que, en materia de cooperativas, acompañan el recién iniciado proceso de actualización del modelo socioeconómico socialista cubano, así como las perspectivas que dicho proceso abre a esta forma empresarial en la construcción del socialismo próspero y sostenible que el país necesita. Para ello, se parte de una caracterización general de la regulación jurídica de la cooperativa en los modelos socialistas, con especial énfasis en la concepción de su naturaleza y en sus relaciones con el Estado, a fin de comprender las restricciones impuestas por el Derecho al asignarle su rol en el sistema socioeconómico. Partiendo de esta base, se analizarán las limitaciones que ha presentado la regulación de la cooperativa en Cuba en la etapa socialista, relativas a su naturaleza, reconocimiento del derecho para asociarse en cooperativas, sector de la economía en que se desarrolla, fines a los que se concibe, dinámica de funcionamiento, etc. y que requieren ser superadas en el actual proceso de cambios que vive el país para que la institución pueda desplegar sus diversas potencialidades. Por último, se realizara una aproximación crítica a las más recientes transformaciones jurídicas que ha sufrido la cooperativa en el marco del proceso de perfeccionamiento del sistema socioeconómico socialista cubano, así como a las perspectivas que abre dicho proceso para que el Derecho pueda jugar su papel regulador y potenciador en torno a ella.”

 

 

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

 

‘Conscience Capitalism’ and the Neoliberalisation of the Non-Profit Sector

Nathan Farrell. New Political Economy, volume 20, issue 2, pages 254-272, March 2015.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/13563467.2014.923823#.
VQGngnyG8gA

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article analyses a range of initiatives, labelled as ‘conscience capitalist’, that have become prominent since the 2008 financial crash. Conscience capitalism encompasses projects emerging in both the for- and non-profit sectors that seek to connect neoliberal capitalism with concepts of morality and conscience. The article begins by unpacking conscience capitalism, showing how its for-profit advocates seek to transform capitalism by orienting it towards accounting for social and environmental externalities, and how its non-profit supporters seek to incorporate components of neoliberalism to serve their environmentally and/or socially focused agendas. Conscience capitalism appears to be a re-evaluation and call for reform of the prominent forms of neoliberalism. However, this article argues that, rather than comprising a hindrance, conscience capitalism offers a means of advancing the project. This is evident in its attempts to reconstitute social and environmental externalities in terms relatable to the market, and represent social and environmental problems in quantitative terms in which the success of market-based solutions can be read. Acknowledging some of the successes of conscience capitalist campaigns, the article concludes by arguing that this continued neoliberalisation of the non-profit sector favours campaigns consistent with neoliberalism and has the potential to undermine the democratic governance of non-profits.”

 

Solidarity Economy and Social Business (book)

Noriatsu Matsui and Yukio Ikemoto (eds.). Springer, 108 pages, February 2015.

http://www.springer.com/economics/
development/book/978-4-431-55470-7

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This book presents theoretical examinations of why and how connecting people yields different results from those of the market mechanism alone. With an ever-greater disparity between the world’s rich and poor, actions have been taken to remove the imperfections and remedy malfunctions of the market mechanism. An underlying theme of these activities is to connect people and make them directly visible to one another; thus the integrating concept of the “solidarity economy” emerges. This volume analyzes diverse examples and practices of solidarity economy. […] With this unifying theme, the book will be useful for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.”

 

Handbook on the Economics of Reciprocity and Social Enterprise (book)

Luigino Bruni and Stefano Zamagni (eds.). Edward Elgar Pub, 488 pages, February 2015.

http://www.e-elgar.co.uk/bookentry_
main.lasso?id=14159

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The recent era of economic turbulence has generated a growing enthusiasm for an increase in new and original economic insights based around the concepts of reciprocity and social enterprise. This stimulating and thought-provoking Handbook not only encourages and supports this growth, but also emphasises and expands upon new topics and issues within the economics discourse. Original contributions from key international experts acknowledge and illustrate that markets and firms can be civilizing forces when and if they are understood as expressions of cooperation and civil virtues. They provide an illuminating discourse on a wide range of topics including reciprocity, gifts and the civil economy, which are especially relevant in times of crisis for financial capitalism. The Handbook questions the current phase of the market economy that arises from a state of anthropological pessimism. Such anthropological cynicism is one of the foundations of the contemporary economic system that is challenged by the contributors.”

 

Personality Trait Differences between Traditional and Social Entrepreneurs

Rachael Smith, Robin Bell and Helen Watts. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 3, pages 200-221, December 2014.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
abs/10.1108/SEJ-08-2013-0033

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper aims to identify personality trait differences between social and traditional entrepreneurs. The Durham Business School’s General Enterprise Tendencies (GET) test was chosen to measure an individual’s entrepreneurial personality. The choice was based on the test’s established use within industry and its ability to measure traits most commonly considered “entrepreneurial” by the extant literature. The test was adapted for this study and distributed to both social and traditional entrepreneurs. The results were then statistically analysed to test for significant differences between the two groups. It was found that social entrepreneurs exhibited statistically significantly higher levels of creativity, risk-taking and need for autonomy than traditional entrepreneurs. The results were then discussed critically in light of the literature. This research provides new insights into personality trait differences between social and traditional entrepreneurs and is particularly useful to those with an interest in entrepreneurial orientation and those interested in the identification and development of social entrepreneurs.”

 

The Third Sector in Europe: towards a Consensus Conceptualization Analysis

Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojtek Sokolowski. Third Sector Impact, Working Paper 02/2014, 2014.