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ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 11, NUMÉRO 6, JUIN 2016

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

When Stakeholder Representation Leads to Faultlines. A Study of Board Service Performance in Social Enterprises

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

Cooperatives, Economic Democratization and Rural Development

Contextualizing Poverty and Culture; Towards a Social Economy of Community Centered Knowledge Based Development

Funding Policies and the Nonprofit Sector in Western Canada: Evolving Relationships in a Changing Environment

“Big Man” Politics in the Social Economy: a Case Study of Microfinance in Kingston, Jamaica

Social Enterprise Self-employment Programs: A Two-dimensional Human Capital Investment Strategy

Analysis of the Possibilities for Expansion of Services in Tanzanian Savings and Credits Co-operative Societies: Learning From Economies of Scale

What Influences the Location of Nonprofit Organizations? A Spatial Analysis in Brazil

EL modelo del sistema viable: Una referencia estratégica para el estudio organizacional del sector cooperativo Chileno

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

Political Influence and the Performance of Nonprofit Spanish Banks

Impact Measurement in Social Enterprises: Australia and India

Social Enterprise Sustainability Revisited: an International Perspective

The Effects of Resources on Social Activity and Economic Performance in Social Economy Organizations

Gestion

Management / Gestión

Women's Self-determination in Cooperative Tourism Microenterprises

Collective Action and Aspirations: The Impact of cooperatives on Ethiopian Coffee Farmes’s Aspirations

Nonprofit Leader Perceptions of Operating Reserves and Their Substitutes

Factors Influencing Pro-social Consumer Behavior through Non-profit Organizations

Recruitment and Retention of Referees in Nonprofit Sport Organizations: The Trickle-Down Effect of Role Models

Determinants of Nonprofit Sector Density: A Stakeholder Approach

The Role of Social Capital in the Start-Up of Non-profit Organisations: The Case of Fondazione Welfare Ambrosiano

Process Improvement for Professionalizing Non-profit Organizations: BPM Approach

Trust, Social Capital, and the Coordination of Relationships Between the Members of Cooperatives: A Comparison Between Member-Focused Cooperatives and Third-Party-Focused Cooperatives

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Social Innovation In Africa: A practical guide for scaling impact

Formes et fondements de la créativité dans l’économie sociale et solidaire

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

The Philanthropic Consequence of Government Grants to Nonprofit Organizations

On the Emergence of Non-profit firms As Alternatives to the Government

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

Social Entrepreneurship in Portugal: Intervention and Management Models in Third Sector

Islamic Social Business to Alleviate Poverty and Social Inequality

Social Enterprise Emergence from Social Movement Activism: The Fairphone Case

Numéro spécial

The Third Sector and the Global Economic Recession

Varia

Société vieillissante, société innovante. L’ESS au défi du vieillissement démographique

Canadian Social Enterprise Sector Survey Report

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions / Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

When Stakeholder Representation Leads to Faultlines. A Study of Board Service Performance in Social Enterprises

Saskia Crucke and Mirjam Knockaert. Journal of Management Studies, volume 53, issue 5, pages 768 -793, July 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111
/joms.12197/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above:Following the growing interest in sustainability and ethics, organizations are increasingly attentive to accountability toward stakeholders. Stakeholder representation, obtained by appointing board members representing different stakeholder groups, is suggested to be a good ethical practice. However, such representation may also have nefarious implications for board functioning. Particularly, it may result in strong faultline emergence, subsequently mitigating board performance. Our study aims at understanding the process through which faultlines affect board performance, and particularly the board service role through which the board is involved in providing counsel and strategic decision-making. We study the relationship between faultlines and board service performance in the particularly relevant context of social enterprises. We find that faultline strength is negatively related to board service performance and that this relationship is mediated by board task conflict. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of clear and shared organizational goals in attenuating the negative effects of faultlines.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

Cooperatives, Economic Democratization and Rural Development

Jos Bijman Wageningen, Roldan Muradian and Jur Schuurman. Edward Elgar Publishing, 320 pages, June 2016.

http://www.e-elgar.com/shop/cooperatives-economic
-democratization-and-rural-development

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Agricultural cooperatives and producer organizations are institutional innovations which have the potential to reduce poverty and improve food security. This book presents a raft of international case studies, from developing and transition countries, to analyse the internal and external challenges that these complex organizations face and the solutions that they have developed. The contributors provide an increased understanding of the transformation of traditional community organizations into modern farmer-owned businesses. They cover issues including: the impact on rural development and inclusiveness, the role of social capital, formal versus informal organizations, democratic participation and member relations, and their role in value chains.”

 

Contextualizing Poverty and Culture; Towards a Social Economy of Community Centered Knowledge Based Development 

Raza A., H.S. Murad and M.Z. Zakar.  International Journal of Social Economics, volume 43, issue 5, pages 486-501, May 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs
/10.1108/IJSE-04-2014-0072

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to explore the critical interrelationships between poverty, culture and knowledge-based community development. The traditional approaches to the management of poverty such as infrastructure, literacy and economic aid have failed to deliver and ameliorate the lot of common people. The current paper engages in critical constructivist discourse on poverty as unfolding in the era of knowledge economy and seeks to propose a community focussed knowledge-based development model of human economic and social uplift. This model has three dimensions: community knowledge focus, interactions of local, regional and global knowledge shaping and influencing poverty management and finally collective responsibility (collective commitment) of groups to rid them of poverty trap. First, this paper looks at the social interconnections of poverty, culture and knowledgebased development in a critical discourse context. Second, it discusses the alternative worldviews of economic development. Third, it questions current epistemological and sociological assumptions of development paradigm. The paper looks at the issues of poverty, culture and economic development from a critical pluralistic epistemological standpoint. It also questions some of the prescriptive methods of development by poverty experts. It also proposes to effectively explore and integrate different cognitive styles in development discourse and their usefulness and relevance to global development discourse.”

 

Funding Policies and the Nonprofit Sector in Western Canada: Evolving Relationships in a Changing Environment

Peter R. Elson. University of Toronto Press Publishing, 296 pages, march 2016.

http://www.utppublishing.com/Funding-Policies-and
-the-Nonprofit-Sector-in-Western-Canada-Evolving-Relationships
-in-a-Changing-Environment.html

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Funding Policies and the Nonprofit Sector in Western Canada offers a detailed yet accessible account of nonprofit funding policies in a region characterized by fiscal conservatism, a cyclical resource-based economy, and a growing share of Canada’s population and GDP. The chapters in this collection offer compelling and candid analyses of the realities of nonprofit funding in Western Canada. Each combines practical insights with academic rigour, providing critical historical context and an up-to-date profile of funding for services. For each province, a leading practitioner has provided an insider perspective into a specific regime or organization: nonprofit housing in British Columbia; the politics of social policy in Alberta; sport, culture, and recreation, and lottery funds in Saskatchewan; and community economic development in Manitoba. Written by leading researchers and practitioners, Funding Policies and the Nonprofit Sector in Western Canada offers a solid foundation on which policymakers, scholars, and practitioners alike can examine the challenges and opportunities of the contemporary funding environment.”

 

“Big Man” Politics in the Social Economy: a Case Study of Microfinance in Kingston, Jamaica

Caroline Shenaz Hossein. Review of Social Economy, volume 74, issue 2, pages 148-171, June 2016.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.
1080/00346764.2015.1067754

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Microfinance and its “reinvention as bankers-for-the-poor” to create financial inclusion has not been effective everywhere. The literature seems to suggest that the social economy and microfinance help marginalized business people; yet no one considers that political bias interferes with the social economy, making it hard for it to be just. The promise of micro-credit was to achieve a double bottom line: first, the financial sustainability of the lending institution itself, and second, the social benefit of providing loans to low-income business people. Yet, alternative pitches of a social economy to “help people” fail to analyze the embedded power dynamics within the social economy. In this case study in downtown Kingston, Jamaica, 233 small-business people who depend on development finance because of social exclusion now find that these targeted programs are intertwined in partisan, sometimes dangerous, politics. As a result, oppressed people opt out of micro-banking programs to resist “Big Man” politics – the politicians or gangsters attempting to control them. In this study of 307 interviews, I analyze the informal politics of Dons and politicians who misuse micro-credit for their own ends. I find that the coupling of class biases and clientelist practices in the social economy discourages eligible business people from taking micro-loans, and argue that the microfinance industry needs to pay close attention to this issue if it is to continue to help marginalized business people.”

 

Social Enterprise Self-employment Programs: A Two-dimensional Human Capital Investment Strategy

Rasheda L. Weaver. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 1, pages 4-20, May 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/SEJ-06-2015-0017

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The purpose of this paper is to introduce social enterprise self-employment programs (SEPs) as a two-dimensional human capital investment strategy that can potentially advance economic development. SEPs are frequently utilized as a tool for increasing economic self-sufficiency in poor communities. Literature discussing the use of commercial enterprise SEPs to increase economic development highlights the potential for creating the similar programs geared toward creating social enterprises. Human capital theory is used to illustrate how social enterprise SEPs can foster human capital, a predictor of economic growth and development. Examples of existing social enterprise SEPs are discussed to highlight how they can be designed. Cases of human capital-oriented social enterprises are also used to outline different business forms social enterprise SEPs can help create. This general review paper suggests that social enterprise SEPs can be a sound two-dimensional human capital investment strategy. It argues that social enterprise SEPs can train aspiring social entrepreneurs to create businesses than subsequently foster human capital in their local communities. This paper introduces the concept of social enterprise SEPs, opening up a new area of research for scholars to explore. Researchers should examine participant and organizational factors of existing social enterprise SEPs to assess their impact, as literature has linked them to success rates of commercial SEPs. This paper emphasizes the need for SEPs to offer task-related training as opposed to general business training to prepare social entrepreneurs in effort to run successful social enterprises. The concept of social enterprise SEPs is new, and literature pertaining to it is scarce. This paper introduces them as a tool for attending to community problems while equipping future generations of social entrepreneurs with the skills to create social enterprises.”

 

Kicking Off Social Entrepreneurship: How A Sustainability Orientation Influences Crowdfunding Success
Goran Calic and Elaine Mosakowski. Journal of Management Studies, volume 53, issue 5, pages 738–767, July 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joms
.12201/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Research generally suggests that, relative to commercial entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs stand at a disadvantage at acquiring resources through traditional financial institutions. Yet interest in social entrepreneurship appears to be at an all-time high. The current paper advances the argument that an innovative institutional form – crowdfunding – has emerged to address the needs of social entrepreneurs and other entrepreneurs with limited access to traditional sources of capital. To examine this, we study whether and how a sustainability orientation affects entrepreneurs’ ability to acquire financial resources through crowdfunding and hypothesize that a venture's sustainability orientation will enhance its fundraising capability. We also suggest that project legitimacy and creativity mediate the relationship between a sustainability orientation and funding success. Our analysis produces two key findings: 1) a sustainability orientation positively affects funding success of crowdfunding projects, and 2) this relationship is partially mediated by project creativity and third party endorsements.”

 

Analysis of the Possibilities for Expansion of Services in Tanzanian Savings and Credits Co-operative Societies: Learning From Economies of Scale

Benson Otieno Ndiege, Xuezhi Qin, Daud Massambu and Esther N. Towo. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 2, pages 239- 255, June 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12104/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOS) increasingly recognized as the valuable tool for economic development in low-income countries. However, recently researchers reported that one of their primary challenges to their expansion is the high level of inefficient. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between growth and efficiency of SACCOS using economies of scale concept. Then we address the role of management of the capital structure and allocation of resources in the expansion of SACCOS. The study used financial statement data from 60 SACCOS in Tanzania for the period of 2004–2011. The findings supports that most of SACCOS are small and cost inefficient because the industry is young, but, the efficiency increases as SACCOS expand. Second the allocation of resources in liquid, financial and non-financial investment leads to no expansion in SACCOS. Thus, the growth of SACCOS via increasing loan to members, members’ savings, shares, and institutional capital should be encouraged as it increases the efficiency of SACCOS. Also, SACCOS should minimize the allocation of assets in other investments which are different from credit to members.”

 

What Influences the Location of Nonprofit Organizations? A Spatial Analysis in Brazil

Marcelo Marchesini da Costa. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 3, pages 1064-1090, June 2016.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11266
-016-9682-7?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: What are the local characteristics influencing where new nonprofits will be established? How important are community needs, available resources, or the existence of similar organizations for nonprofits’ location? This paper analyzes how the characteristics of 5562 Brazilian municipalities in the year 2000 help explain the location of nonprofits formed between 2001 and 2010. Based on geographically weighted regressions, results indicate that neither access to resources nor poor socioeconomic indicators are powerful influences on nonprofit location in Brazilian municipalities. The main predictor of nonprofit entry is a high pre-existing density of nonprofits in that area. These findings, however, vary across regions and nonprofit fields of activity. By mapping the effect of key explanatory variables, this paper helps understand nonprofit location. The methodology and findings on nonprofit location presented here are novel and may contribute to research in other countries.”

 

EL modelo del sistema viable: Una referencia estratégica para el estudio organizacional del sector cooperativo Chileno

Pedro Narvarte Arregui y Catalina Careaga Díaz. REVESCO. Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, volumen 121, Abril 2016.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_REVE.2016.v121.49702

Resumen proveniente del artículo: El Sector Cooperativo Chileno puede ser explicado como un sistema complejo de actividad humana que persigue mantener una existencia autónoma, es decir, ser viable. Desde esta perspectiva, el Modelo del Sistema Viable presenta una oportunidad real para estudiar la organización sectorial del cooperativismo chileno. El objetivo global del trabajo es exponer un estudio acerca de la viabilidad del Sector Cooperativo Chileno en un contexto de organización sectorial, considerando el entramado cultural, legal y económico del país en la actualidad. Para ello se realizó una caracterización de la situación problema del Sector identificando algunos factores relevantes en los ámbitos de estructura de mercado, regulaciones, e intercooperaciones; junto a ello, se presenta un diagnóstico organizacional para el sector y la propuesta de un conjunto de orientaciones estratégicas que contribuirán a su desarrollo.”

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

Political Influence and the Performance of Nonprofit Spanish Banks

Pina Vicente,Torres Lourdes and Bachiller Patricia. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 26, issue 4, pages 471-488, June 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nml.21205/full

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This article presents empirical evidence about factors that influence the solvency of Spanish savings banks. It also studies whether the presence of politicians in their governance has led to lower solvency ratios and, consequently, to the current economic situation in the Spanish banking sector. We use multivariate regressions, taking the solvency ratio as the dependent variable; and efficiency, the coverage ratio, political influence, CEOs’ political influence, size, growth, and age as independent variables. Our results confirm that banking entities controlled by politicians resulted in poor performance, and political influence on the boards of savings banks led them to insolvency. The findings show that the nonownership structure of savings banks, the lack of best practice corporate governance mechanisms, and political presence have weakened them.”

 

Impact Measurement in Social Enterprises: Australia and India

Debbie Haski-Leventhal and Akriti Mehra. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 1, pages 78-103, May 2016

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/SEJ-05-2015-0012

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This study aims to extend existing research on impact measurement (IM) in social enterprises (SEs) by capturing, comparing and contrasting perceptions of IM in SEs in Australia and India. A qualitative methodology was used to study five cases each in India and Australia. The SEs were identified using snowball and theoretical sampling, and grounded theory was applied to analyze the data. Emerging perceptions of IM in both countries are described according to the development of the SE, its perceived impact and IM methods and challenges. Primary differences between India and Australia lie in perceptions of impact and IM, and related tools and processes. Similarities include understanding the importance of IM and the challenges faced. Signaling theory is used to depict how some SEs use IM to signal quality to their stakeholders and how information asymmetry can be reduced by measuring and reporting on IM. There is limited representation from developed and developing countries, and the snowball and theoretical sampling approaches used to identify SEs have limitations, including limited representation of SEs. There is presently no standardized method of IM due to common challenges and perceived barriers. It is, therefore, important for SEs to work toward developing their own comprehensive IM methodology that is ingrained in strategy, applied on a regular basis and used to measure collective impact to increase sense of ownership and acceptability for employees and partners. The paper brings the social entrepreneurs’ perspectives on measuring social impact while comparing these perspectives in one developing and one developed country.”


 

 

Social Enterprise Sustainability Revisited: an International Perspective

Peter Jenner. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 12, issue 1, pages 42-60, May 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/SEJ-12-2014-0042

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The purpose of this paper is to examine social enterprise sustainability by comparing recent international research with prior findings seeking to identify the important factors that facilitate social enterprise development. The research used a concurrent, convergent mixed methods approach on a sample of 93 social enterprise leaders using surveys and face-to-face interviews. The participants were sourced from a cross-section of social enterprise organisational types from urban and regional locations in Australia and Scotland. The findings support prior research, identifying resourcing, organisational capabilities, collaborative networks and legitimacy as influential in the success of social enterprises. However, the research contributes new knowledge by revealing an overarching growth orientation as the dominant factor in the strategic management for sustainability of these ventures. This growth orientation is generally associated with the intent to achieve profitability. Thus, social enterprise managers view a commercially focused growth orientation as an overarching strategic factor that underpins organisational sustainability. The paper delivers new insights into the strategic orientation of social ventures of benefit to policy makers and practitioners alike. The findings are significant for policy makers providing perspectives into how governmental assistance can be targeted to develop sustainable social enterprises, particularly the need to support the growth of these ventures. Similarly, practitioners are alerted to the strategic imperatives of incorporating a commercially focused growth orientation and the latent potential that exists in the networks of social enterprise.”

 

The Effects of Resources on Social Activity and Economic Performance in Social Economy Organizations

López‐Arceiz Francisco José, Bellostas Pérezgrueso Ana José, Rivera Torres María Pilar. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 26, issue 4, pages 499-511, June 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nml.21204/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Social economy organizations (SEOs) represent the European Union's strong commitment to promoting the creation of welfare, employment, and social cohesion. This article examines the financial management model of these organizations by analyzing the impact of their available resources or capabilities on their economic performance and social activity and the possible mediating effect of their economic dimension as a strategic element in obtaining social achievements. In this study, we analyze 1,400 Spanish SEOs between 2009 and 2012 by using a structural equations model (SEM). Our results reveal that SEOs have their own financial management model that is characterized by the mediating role of economic performance and a high ability to adapt to changes in the environment.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

Women's Self-determination in Cooperative Tourism Microenterprises

Chantell LaPan, Duarte B. Morais,Tim Wallace and Carla Barbieri. Tourism Review International, volume 20, issue 1, pages 41-55, May 2016.

https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/
component/content/article/875

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The purpose of this study is to better understand how cooperative forms of microentrepreneurship influence women's self-determination. Utilizing the framework of self-determination theory, this study employed a multiple case study approach that involved in-depth interviews, content analysis, field notes, and direct observations. Findings indicate that livelihood opportunities afforded under cooperative tourism microentrepreneurship offer women increased levels of self-determination, but that economic improvements alone are not sufficient in enhancing overall well-being. This study provides a detailed account of the strategies indigenous women employ to enhance their self-determination under cooperative tourism microentrepreneurship models. The results of this study suggest that programs by governments and NGOs should consider non-individual benefits when they engage with communities in tourism planning initiatives. Additionally, interventions aimed at women must also engage men or women may suffer from tensions at home. Finally, this study indicates that simply offering access to credit does not foster self-reliant development. The structures of cooperative models determine outcomes. Therefore, whenever possible, microentrepreneurship models should be designed to enhance strong cooperative social structures.”

 


 

Collective Action and Aspirations: The Impact of cooperatives on Ethiopian Coffee Farmes’s Aspirations

Dagne Mojo, Christian Fischer and Terefe Degefa. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 87, issue 2, pages 217- 238, June 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apce.12103/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Aspirations motivate behaviours, serve to mobilize and direct energy into actions, and are regarded as important determinants of success. Given the importance of aspirations and their formation in social interaction, the objective of this article is to evaluate if cooperative membership can have effects on members' aspiration levels. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 305 Ethiopian coffee farmers on their aspired levels in five dimensions of their lives. Results, using a propensity score matching technique, show that membership in cooperatives significantly improves the aspiration levels of the members. The article emphasizes the utilization of this hidden but important benefit of cooperatives.”

 

Nonprofit Leader Perceptions of Operating Reserves and Their Substitutes

Sloan Margaret F., Charles Cleopatra and Kim Mirae. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 26, issue 4, pages 417-433, June 2016.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nml.21207/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This exploratory study has three objectives: (1) to understand the various ways academics, consultants, and practitioners conceptualize operating reserves; (2) to explore differences among academic findings, consultant recommendations, and nonprofit leader perceptions of operating reserves; and (3) to identify how practitioners operationalize operating reserves within their organizations. Using intensive interviews with nonprofit executives, we find that the operating reserve ratio (ORR) commonly used in the nonprofit literature does not accurately indicate whether an organization holds an operating reserve according to nonprofit leaders. In addition, results indicate that experienced nonprofit leaders perceive a variety of other fund types including endowment and investment savings as well as ability to borrow, other assets, sister foundations, and donor networks as legitimate substitutes for a reserve.”

 

Factors Influencing Pro-social Consumer Behavior through Non-profit Organizations

Murillo Daniel Edgardo Cano, Kang Juyoung and Yoon Sora. Internet Research, volume 26, issue 3, pages 626-643, June 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/IntR-10-2014-0253

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the major factors in the intention to adopt pro-social behavior through the internet by dividing them into personal factors and internet factors. This research uses an empirical model to determine which personal and internet features are significant to consumers’ pro-social concerns. Internet factors may also affect pro-social behavior in addition to personal factors that many psychological studies have found to be influential. Through internet survey of 150 responses, the research model was analyzed with the partial least squares method. The findings indicate that social influence (SI) and specific internet characteristics generate perceived reciprocity and perceived ease of use of the internet in customers that encourages pro-social behavior. The findings provide non-profits with a theoretical foundation for their marketing. Many agencies and media reports have pointed out the importance of the internet in social causes. This study offers a thorough model revealing the influential factors in pro-social activities. This study has discovered the influential factors that non-profit organizations must consider in order to persuade their population targets. Organizations striving to capture consumers’ attention and purchase behavior (in the form of a social contribution) must facilitate SI and ease of use, as these are highly influential. Pro-social behavior and internet adoption have been widely studied separately but rarely together. This study analyzes the major factors in the intention to adopt pro-social behavior through the internet by dividing them into personal factors and internet factors.”

 

Recruitment and Retention of Referees in Nonprofit Sport Organizations: The Trickle-Down Effect of Role Models

Pamela Wicker and Bernd Frick. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 3, pages1304-1322, June 2016.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11266-
016-9705-4?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The recruitment and retention of voluntary referees is challenging for nonprofit sport organizations. This study examines the trickle-down effect of role models on the retention of already active referees and the recruitment of new referees in German football (soccer). Secondary panel data on the number of referees and role models (i.e., referees promoted to the status of a Bundesliga or FIFA referee) were collected for the 21 regional football associations. The regression results show that the presence of role models has a statistically significant and positive effect on the number of existing referees. The number of new referees is positively affected by referees who were promoted to the status of a first Bundesliga referee, but not by those promoted to the status of a FIFA referee. The findings suggest that nonprofit sport organizations should capitalize on the effect of role models to a greater extent.”

 

Determinants of Nonprofit Sector Density: A Stakeholder Approach

Stijn Van Puyvelde and William A. Brown. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 3, pages 1045-1063, June 2016.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11266
-015-9656-1?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Why do nonprofit organizations exist? From an economic perspective, a number of major theories have been proposed to explain their existence. However, when exploring determinants of nonprofit sector density, one needs to take into account that demand and supply factors operate simultaneously and that it is difficult to separate them. By using a stakeholder approach, we develop a more integrative framework for understanding variations in nonprofit sector density. We test this framework by investigating determinants of nonprofit sector density in Texas at the county level.”

 

The Role of Social Capital in the Start-Up of Non-profit Organisations: The Case of Fondazione Welfare Ambrosiano

Matteo Pedrini, Valentina Bramanti, Laura Maria Ferri and Marco Minciullo. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 3, pages 1195-1217, June 2016.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11266-015-
9614-y?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This article investigates how a start-up foundation can build its organisational social capital, meaning a network of strategic partnerships with other organisations based on trust relationships, in order to fulfil its mission. Based on a case study analysis of Fondazione Welfare Ambrosiano—an Italian foundation created in partnership with private organisations and local public institutions—we explored whether and how some characteristics of the social capital of the foundation’s members contributed to the organisational social capital. By applying Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (Acad Manag Rev 23(2):242–266, 1998) social capital framework, we discovered that the social capital configuration of the founders and staff, linked to some characteristics of the foundation, had driven the development of the organizational social capital. Our paper contributes to an understanding of what constitutes the best configuration of social capital to allow a start-up foundation to take off.”

 

Process Improvement for Professionalizing Non-profit Organizations: BPM Approach

Carolina Resende Haddad, Diego Hernando Florez Ayala, Mauricio Uriona Maldonado, Fernando Antônio Forcellini and Álvaro Guillermo Rojas Lezana. Business Process Management Journal, volume 22, issue 3, pages 634-658, June 2016.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.
1108/BPMJ-08-2015-0114

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for process improvement at the Department of Social Responsibility of a Colombian process-based organization, called CAJASAN. The department has four main processes: Foniñez (children fund), Fosfec (unemployment fund), Project Management and International Cooperation and Network Management and Alliances. The objective of this paper is to suggest an improvement in these processes through BPM application. The authors followed the BPM method proposed by Dumas et al. (2013) for process improvement composed by process identification; process discovery; process analysis; process redesign; process implementation and process monitoring and controlling. The authors modeled the processes by using the software Bizagi. The actual processes work in an independent way and with no communication. Moreover, the department experiences short-term problems solutions and process inefficiency. It was possible to suggest changes in three out of four processes. Implementing BPM in non-profit organizations (NPO) addresses many of the current management challenges faced by such organizations. NPO’s researchers and practitioners should take BPM as a potential way to help in professionalizing them. The authors bring an original case study about a Colombian NPO. As a process-oriented organization, the authors use BPM as a management tool to solve many challenges that the company faces nowadays.”

 


 

Trust, Social Capital, and the Coordination of Relationships Between the Members of Cooperatives: A Comparison Between Member-Focused Cooperatives and Third-Party-Focused Cooperatives

Isabella Hatak, Richard Lang and Dietmar Roessl. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 27, issue 3, pages 1218-1241, June 2016.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11266-015-
9663-2?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: In recent years, nonprofit scholars have increasingly studied the phenomenon of social enterprises which has become a generic term describing a wider reorientation among third sector organizations. The emergence of social enterprises has also led to a dynamic of hybridization and broadening in the cooperative sector, similar to an earlier dynamic of “economization”, but this time on the other end of the organizational spectrum. This paper aims at developing a fine-grained conceptual understanding of how this organizational dynamic is shaped in terms of member coordination, thus contributing to a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of different organizational forms of cooperatives. Specifically, to highlight the difference to traditional member-focused cooperatives, the paper introduces the term third-party-focused cooperatives for those social enterprises which emphasize economic goals as well as control and ownership by a particular community (typically place-based). The key result of the paper is that with the shift from member- to community-focus in cooperatives, the main coordination mechanism becomes one of norm-based trust on the basis of generalized reciprocity. In contrast to traditional maxim-based trust member coordination on the basis of relation-specific reciprocity, this enables third-party-focused cooperatives to mobilize bridging and linking social capital, facilitating collective action aimed towards the community interest. The findings suggest that this identity shift requires a mutual re-positioning between the cooperative and the nonprofit sector, in terms of umbrellas as well as regulatory and legislative bodies.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Social Innovation In Africa: A practical guide for scaling impact

Ndidi Okonkwo Nwuneli. Routledge Edition, Routledge Studies in African Development, 190 pages, July 2016.

https://www.routledge.com/Social-Innovation
-In-Africa-A-practical-guide-for-scaling-impact/N
wuneli/p/book/9781138182844

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: This is a brilliant book on scaling up social innovation and entrepreneurship, with relevance for Africa and far beyond. It presents an excellent analytical framework, wide ranging evidence of specific social enterprises, and practical guidance for social entrepreneurs and their partners. The author uniquely combines thorough literature research and on-the-ground interviews with her own rich experience as a serial social entrepreneur in Nigeria.”

 

Formes et fondements de la créativité dans l’économie sociale et solidaire