ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES
Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
Good Governance: A Radical and Normative Approach to Nonprofit Management
Principals and Agents: An Investigation of Executive Compensation in Human Service Nonprofits
MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement
Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento
Faire société : le choix des coopératives (livre)
Social Cooperatives in Italy: Economic Antecedents and Regional Distribution
Building Nonprofit Financial Capacity. The Impact of Revenue Concentration and Overhead Costs
Nonprofits and the Promotion of Civic Engagement: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the "Civic Footprint" of Nonprofits within Local Communities
The Relevance of the Cooperative Model in the Field of Renewable Energy
Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación
Why Aren’t Evaluations Working and What to Do About It. A Framework for Negotiating Meaningful Evaluation in Nonprofits
The Impact of Capacity-Building Programs on Nonprofits. A Random Assignment Evaluation
De la vision à l'action: la performance dans les entreprises d'insertion du Québec
Impact of Agricultural Cooperatives on Smallholders’ Technical Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia
Resource-Based Accountability: A Case Study on Multiple Accountability Relations in an Economic Development Nonprofit
Management / Gestión
Surplus distribution and characteristics of social enterprises: Evidence from microfinance
Transaction Costs Comparison Between Cooperatives and Conventional Apple Producers: a Case Study of Northwestern China
Collaboration Between Nonprofit and Business Sectors: A Framework to Guide Strategy Development for Nonprofit Organizations
Strategic Orientation and Social Enterprise Performance
Franchising as a Strategy for Combining Small and Large Group Advantages (Logics) in Social Entrepreneurship. A Hayekian Perspective
Social innovation / Innovación social
L'économie sociale et solidaire face aux défis de l'innovation sociale et du changement de société (livre)
Resistance to Social Entrepreneurship: How Context Shapes Innovation
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
Distinction entre co-production et co-construction des politiques publiques
CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS
Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones
Linking Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainability
Connecting the Dots for Social Value: A Review on Social Networks and Social Entrepreneurship
Other / Otros
Análisis del marco económico-jurídico específico para los emprendedores sociales. Un estudio comparado entre diversos países
Canadians with Disabilities, Labour Market Challenges, and Employment Opportunities in the Social Economy
ACTIVITÉS DE RECHERCHE ET DE FORMATION
Research and formation activities / Actividades de investigación y formación
APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS
Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos
ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR
Events / Eventos
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
Antonin Wagner. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 3, pages 772-796, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article proposes a radical and normative approach to understanding governance as one of the core issues dealt with in nonprofit management. The radical component traces ideas of good governance through a series of historical transformations, from the governance of Italian city-states in the fourteenth century through the Enlightenment and on to the American Revolution. The normative component challenges the instrumental understanding of good governance as effective organizational behavior and puts the emphasis on the moral values underpinning managerial practices in the public sphere. In concluding, the radical and normative approaches are being integrated into a framework for nonprofit management education. Unlike existing curricula, the proposed model does not focus on preparing students for a particular type of organizations, but for the career of civic professionals engaged as intermediaries in the public sphere. In this respect, the article addresses both, researchers interested in overcoming the division that exists between descriptive and prescriptive approaches to understanding governance and faculty concerned about the relevance of nonprofit management in an increasingly complex organizational environment.”
Omar AL-Tabbaa, Desmond Leach and John March. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 3, pages 657-678, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study proposes a revised agency theory for the nonprofit sector, distinguishes between the extent of agency and the extent of monitoring, and compares the magnitudes of the two impacts. Using panel data for 1998–2003, the paper tests whether monitoring by principal-stakeholders such as donors, clients, the government, and the board reduces the opportunity for executive misconduct such as extravagant spending on compensation and perquisites. Given the theory, the findings show that two effects influence CEO salaries. First, while nonprofit endowments provide a fiscal cushion in tough financial situations, by offering “organizational slack” they also increase the CEO’s opportunity to steal or raise her compensation (i.e., agency effect). Second, donors utilize monitoring mechanisms such as auditing or direct observations, which limit the opportunity for misconduct and reduce executive pay (i.e., monitoring effect). In the final analysis, the monitoring effect is greater than the agency effect, which implies that even if agency problems are present, the monitoring that donors provide offsets them.”
La manufacture coopérative. Éditions du Croquant, 176 pages, mai 2014.
Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : «L’économie sociale et solidaire et les créations de coopératives sont en nette augmentation (2165 à la fin 2013), même si cette forme d’entreprise reste confidentielle. Est-il si difficile de fabriquer de la coopération ? Comment transformer davantage d’entreprises en coopératives de travail ? Une démocratie se construit, lentement. Une coopérative aussi. Oxalis et Coopaname, coopératives ouvrières emblématiques du mouvement des coopératives d’activités, ont en partage une même façon de faire et d’être : une méthode, un regard sur le monde, un projet politique visant à établir une pédagogie coopérative. Cette « méthode », qui a pour but de mettre en relation des collectifs de travail, accompagne à présent massivement la construction d’initiatives coopératives. Et, dans une logique d’éducation populaire, les acteurs et actrices seront à tour à tour accompagné-es et accompagnant-es. Et si nous imaginions alors de construire un réseau auto-alimenté d’apprentissage et d’accompagnement mutuel entre anciens, nouveaux et futurs coopérateurs et coopératrices ? C’est là l’objectif poursuivi par la Manufacture coopérative. Mais l’évolution vers la coopération implique l’émergence d’une culture spécifique qui fonderait une capacité collective à penser le rapport au pouvoir dans l’entreprise, le rapport au travail et la relation aux autres. Cet ouvrage collectif s’adresse à tous celles et ceux qui souhaitent travailler de manière radicalement différente, qui rêvent de se rassembler autour d’un projet commun qui a du sens. Bref, œuvrer ensemble pour faire société. »
Antonio Picciotti, Andrea Bernardoni, Massimo Cossignani and Luca Ferrucci. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 2, pages 213-231, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social cooperatives represent the most notable form of non-profit organizations operating in Italy in the social services field, the birth and development of which has been strongly linked to, and conditioned by, the needs and resources of territories and communities. This paper intends to demonstrate how certain socio-economic factors, recognized in economic literature as antecedents of the development of social enterprises, may account for the spread of social cooperatives in different Italian regions. Furthermore, the research results demonstrate an inter-regional differentiation of the shape social cooperation has entered into in Italy.”
Grace L. Chikoto and Daniel Gordon Neely. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 3, pages 570 - 588, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Building on the impressive body of research on issues of nonprofit revenue choice and mix, this research empirically tests Foster and Fine’s claim that revenue concentration contributes to the growth of nonprofit organizations. Using National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS) digitized data (1998-2003), the authors test whether revenue concentration is a viable revenue-generating strategy that can help bolster a nonprofit’s financial capacity. Overall, study findings refute the mythology of revenue diversification; the authors find that implementing a revenue concentration strategy generates a positive growth in one’s financial capacity—in particular, a growth in one’s total revenue, over time. Contrary to the prevalent charges laid at the door of high administrative and fundraising efforts by some, the authors find that in order to support financial capacity growth, nonprofits must make positive investments in favor of administrative and fundraising support but not in the form of high executive salaries.”
Micheal L. Shier, Lindsey McDougle and Femida Handy. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research/Revue canadienne de recherche sur les OSBL et l’économie sociale, volume 5, number 1, pages 57-75, Spring/Printemps 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The literature suggests that nonprofit organizations provide civic benefits by promoting engagement within local communities. However, there exists minimal empirical evidence describing the ways in which nonprofits actually undertake this role. In order to address this omission, we conducted interviews with personnel of nonprofit organizations in one rural community in the United States. Our preliminary findings indicate that nonprofit organizations promote civic engagement through programs and activities that: 1) engage volunteers and donors; 2) bring community members together; 3) collaborate with organizations within and beyond the community; and 4) promote community education and awareness. Together, these findings help to develop a working model to understand the civic footprint of nonprofit organizations with methodological implications for future research that would seek to measure the extent to which nonprofits promote civic engagement.”
Benjamin Huybrechts and Sybille Mertens. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 2, pages 193-212, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “While ‘traditional’ cooperatives operating for a long time in fields such as banking, agriculture, or retail, have received important attention in the cooperative literature, much work still needs to be done to understand why and how cooperatives emerge either in fields in which they have not traditionally been widespread (such as health and care, services, etc.), or in ‘new’ fields or sub-fields (such as fair trade, microfinance or renewable energy). Research is even more needed insofar as ‘new’ cooperatives tend to differ from traditional ones in several ways, for instance through the involvement of multiple stakeholders (rather than a dominant one such as producers, consumers or workers) or through a stronger orientation towards general interest goals (beyond traditional mutual interest at the basis of most cooperatives). In this article, we analyze the emergence of cooperatives in the field of renewable energy. This emergence has raised a lot of enthusiasm among the supporters of cooperatives and citizen-based renewable energy as well as questions regarding the viability and the replicability of this model. On the one hand, the assets of the cooperative model enable us to understand why this form has been adopted by citizen groups and has developed, although to varying extents, in many countries. On the other hand, the limits or weaknesses of the model enable us to explain why cooperatives are still a minority in the field of renewable energy and why their development is constrained by several obstacles.”
Kellie C. Liket, Marta Rey-Garcia and Karen E. H. Maas. American Journal of Evaluation, volume 35, issue 2, pages 171-188, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Nonprofit organizations are under great pressure to use evaluations to show that their programs “work” and that they are “effective.” However, empirical evidence indicates that nonprofits struggle to perform useful evaluations, especially when conducted under accountability pressures. An increasing body of evidence highlights the crucial role of a participatory negotiation process between nonprofits and stakeholders on the purpose and design of evaluations in achieving evaluation utility. However, conceptual confusion about the evaluation objectives, unclear evaluation purposes, a lack of appropriate evaluation questions, and normative ideas about superior evaluation designs and methods, complicate the process. In response, we provide practical conceptualizations of the central objectives of evaluations and propose a framework that can guide negotiation processes. It presents the relationships between the evaluation purpose, evaluation question, and the different levels of effects that should be measured. The selection of the evaluation method is contingent on the choices made within this framework.”
Amy Minzner, Jacob A. Klerman, Carrie E. Markovitz, Barbara Fink. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 3, pages 547-569, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) play an important role in delivering social services to those in need. Capacity-building efforts for NPOs derive from funders’ desire to increase NPOs’ effectiveness and redress problems associated with limited administrative and organizational capacity. Through technical assistance, training, and grant funds, funders aim to enhance NPO functioning and ultimately improve client outcomes. Despite a general consensus about the importance of capacity building, little high-quality evidence exists on the impact of capacity-building investments. This article presents the findings from the first random assignment evaluation to be conducted in the field of nonprofit capacity building. The subject of the evaluation was one of country’s largest organizational capacity-building initiatives, the federal government’s Compassion Capital Fund (CCF) Demonstration Program. Findings from the evaluation provide clear evidence that capacity-building efforts increase capacity in each of five critical areas of capacity.”
Marco Alberio et Gabrielle Tremblay. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research/Revue canadienne de recherche sur les OSBL et l’économie sociale, volume 5, number 1, pages 21 - 40, Spring/Printemps 2014.
Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : « Les entreprises d'insertion, nées au début des années 1980, sont des acteurs d'économie sociale ayant une mission d'insertion socioprofessionnelle de divers groupes (jeunes et femmes notamment). Dans cet article, nous exposons les enjeux de gestion de la performance et illustrons comment les entreprises d’insertion sont amenées à une hybridation de la performance, tentant d’assurer la productivité tout en respectant leur mission sociale, soit celle de formation et d’insertion professionnelle. La recherche repose sur des entretiens menés auprès des responsables et employés de neuf entreprises d’insertion au Québec. »
Gashaw Tadesse Abate, Gian Nicola Francesconi and Kindie Getnet. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 2, pages 193-212, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Using household survey data from Ethiopia, this paper evaluates the impact of agricultural cooperatives on smallholders’ technical efficiency. We used propensity score matching to compare the average difference in technical efficiency between cooperative member farmers and similar independent farmers. The results show that agricultural cooperatives are effective in providing support services that significantly contribute to members’ technical efficiency. These results are found to be insensitive to hidden bias and consistent with the idea that agricultural cooperatives enhance members’ efficiency by easing access to productive inputs and facilitating extension linkages. According to the findings, increased participation in agricultural cooperatives should further enhance efficiency gains among smallholder farmers.”
Nina Hug and Urs Peter Jäger. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 3, pages 772-796, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “In economic development nonprofits, the disparity between the nonprofit’s, its donor’s and the poor’s expectations concerning poverty alleviation has been identified as the main reason for ineffective aid delivery. The study at hand contributes to this discussion by following this question: How do the nonprofit, its donors, the supported SMEs, and the poor refer to the nonprofit’s mission of poverty alleviation when negotiating accountability? To answer this question, the study follows the literature on accountability and resource dependency and presents results of an empirical case study on multiple accountability relations between a donor, a development aid nonprofit, its supported SMEs, and the poor living in the environment of the supported SMEs. The results show a pattern we call “resource-based accountability.” This pattern is constituted by the observation that most of the stakeholders tried to meet the expectations of the resource owners with respect to the resource owner’s understanding of successful poverty alleviation. Finally, the paper introduces a hypothesis for further studies.”
Marek Hudon and Anaïs Périlleux. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, volume 54, issue 2, pages 147-157, May 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The issue of surplus distribution has hardly been analyzed in the context of the social economy. This paper highlights the main drivers of distribution between various stakeholders of microfinance institutions (MFIs), which are an example of social enterprises. We focus on three major variables: size, governance structure and subsidies. Our results show that the size of the institution is the main indicator of the surplus that the organization keeps as a self-financial margin. Moreover, MFIs with a cooperative ownership structure allocate a larger part of their surplus to their employees, whereas non-profit organizations and shareholder-firm MFIs do not allocate their surplus in a significantly different way among their main stakeholders. Finally, we do not find any clear-cut effect of subsidies on the surplus allocation process.”
Wang Lijia and Huo Xuexi. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 2, pages 233-255, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The study promotes an analytical framework to monetary the transaction costs for the purpose of assessing the different subfields of transaction cost faced by members in cooperatives and non-cooperatives members, and therefore investigates the role of cooperatives in reducing them using a questionnaire-based survey in Shaanxi province in China. The quantified result of each transaction cost-related item suggests that producers can annually save more than a thousand yuan if they participate in cooperatives. Results also highlight that the medium scale producers would be beneficial most from being a member in cooperatives compared with small- and large-scale ones. By implications, supporting programs referring to improve local road condition, access to internet, and subsidize agricultural cooperatives are highly recommended for policy makers.”
Milena Nikolova. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 3, pages 679-706, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Collaboration between nonprofit and business sectors is widely regarded as a value creation process that benefits society, business, and nonprofit organizations (NPOs). This process, however, has rarely been considered from a nonprofit perspective. In this paper, we discuss a new framework to assist NPOs in developing strategic collaborations with businesses. We argue that, by being strategically proactive rather than reactive to what businesses might offer, NPOs can increase the scale of their cross-sector collaborations and thus enhance their sustainability. Implications for research and practice are discussed.”
Gordon Liu, Sachiko Takeda, Wai-Wai Ko. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 3, pages 480-501, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Even though previous research indicates that an organization’s pursuit of strategic orientation (SO) has positive effects on its performance, we have deepened and expanded our understanding of how this concept can also be applied to social enterprises (SEs). Using data collected from British and Japanese social enterprises, we examined the mediating roles of market effectiveness and consumer satisfaction in both the social and commercial domains with regard to SO effects on performance, as well as how performance in one aspect of practice positively moderates the impact of SO behavior in another. The results contribute to the development of a theory for understanding the concept of SO associated with social enterprise performance. More generally, this article contributes to the ongoing efforts to understand the strategic management aspect of social enterprises.”
Markus Beckmann and Anica Zeyen. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 3, pages 502-522, June 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article develops a Hayekian perspective on social franchising that distinguishes between the end-connected logic of the small group and the rule-connected logic of the big group. Our key claim is that mission-driven social entrepreneurs often draw on the small-group logic when starting their social ventures and then face difficulties when the process of scaling shifts their operations toward a big-group logic. In this situation, social franchising offers a strategy to replicate the small group despite systemwide scaling, to mobilize decentrally accessible social capital, and to reduce agency costs through mechanisms of self-selection and self-monitoring. By employing a Hayekian perspective, we are thus able to offer an explanation as to why social franchising is a suitable scaling strategy for some social entrepreneurship organizations and not for others. We illustrate our work using the Ashoka Fellow Wellcome.”
Jean-Pascal Higelé et Vincent Lhuillier (éds.). Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 364 pages, juin 2014.
Résumé issu du l’URL ci-haut : « Depuis son apparition au XIXe siècle, l'Economie Sociale et Solidaire (ESS) semble vouloir relever deux défis à la fois complémentaires et contradictoires. D'une part, elle se veut une solution concrète et pragmatique à la question sociale et à ce titre tente de corriger les excès du capitalisme et de l’industrialisation. D’autre part, elle endosse parfois le rôle d’un laboratoire d’invention démocratique d’une autre manière de produire, de hiérarchiser et de satisfaire les besoins, avec la volonté de transformer radicalement les logiques socio-économiques dominantes. Le débat autour de l’innovation sociale apparaît aujourd’hui comme central pour interroger cette double ambition de l’ESS. Toutefois, cette notion fait l’objet depuis quelques années d’un travail important de réappropriation et d’instrumentalisation par les pouvoirs publics tant au niveau européen, national que local. C’est ce à quoi les 12e journées du RIUESS (Réseau inter-universitaire à l’économie sociale et solidaire) qui se sont déroulées à Nancy en juin 2012 ont été consacrées […]. Cet ouvrage retrace une partie des débats qui ont eu lieu à cette occasion. »
Jamie Newtha and Christine Woods. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, volume 5, issue 2, pages 192-213, 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social entrepreneurship emerges from social and historical contexts. These contexts also bring the institutional norms, routines, and conventions that challenge and constrain innovation processes. This article contributes to the emerging theoretical discourse of social entrepreneurship by explicating the Schumpeterian notion of resistance. It discusses the context-dependent manifestation of opportunity in, and resistance to, social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship opportunities are the constructed outcomes of entrepreneurial alertness and motivation, and the organizational, societal, institutional, and market contexts in which the entrepreneur is embedded. Likewise, these contextual forces resist and refine social innovations such that they become the products of the financial, social, cultural, and political expectations of stakeholders of social entrepreneurship ventures. A deeper understanding of how context shapes social innovation will give scholars and practitioners a greater appreciation for the ways in which innovations can succeed because of resistance, not in spite of it...”
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
Yves Vaillancourt. Canadian Public Policy, volume 40, issue suppl. 1, pages S4-S16, 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This paper defines two key core concepts in the field of public policy: co-production and co-construction. It first examines the role of the third sector in the co-construction of two public policy initiatives, the Voluntary Sector Initiative and the Social Economy Initiative, developed under the responsibility of the federal state. Then it turns to the participation of the third sector in co-constructing public policy under the responsibility of the Quebec provincial state in six policy areas: policy to recognize autonomous community organizations, policy to recognize the social economy, daycare policy, home care policy, social housing policy and Quebec legislation to combat poverty. The policy initiatives of both the federal state and Quebec state are compared and analysed from a co-construction perspective.”
David Di Zhanga and Lee A. Swanson. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, volume 5, issue 2, pages 175-191, 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The authors review the current research in social entrepreneurship and sustainability, and propose a process model to link these two constructs. Social entrepreneurship, as a business philosophy, moves beyond social, economic, and environmental efficiency and shifts toward effectiveness, thereby contributing to business sustainability. External and internal factors that influence social entrepreneurship are also examined.”
Frédéric Dufaysa and Benjamin Huybrechts. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, volume 5, issue 2, pages 214-237, 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The emergence of social entrepreneurship has been explained at the macro-level (socioeconomic drivers), at the meso-level (concepts such as opportunity), and at the micro-level (motivations and intentions of social entrepreneurs). In this conceptual article, it is argued that the sociology of social networks may contribute to explain how and why social entrepreneurship arises by bridging micro- and macro-levels of analysis. Four different usages of the social network concept in the social entrepreneurship literature are identified: embeddedness of social entrepreneurship, collective social entrepreneurship, networking as a critical skill or activity of social entrepreneurship, and finally networking and the creation of social capital as a goal of social entrepreneurship. Theoretical frameworks explaining the emergence of conventional entrepreneurship with a social network lens are identified. These are evaluated with regard to social entrepreneurship and translated into a set of research proposals to be explored in order to strengthen our understanding of social entrepreneurship emergence.”
Bergamini, Tiziana Priede, Cristina López-Cózar Navarro y Ángel Rodríguez López. CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, no 80, pp. 5-28, Abril 2014.
Resumen proveniente del artículo: “Dentro del ordenamiento jurídico español se distingue entre sociedades típicamente lucrativas, como las sociedades anónimas o limitadas, y otras claramente alineadas con la denominada economía social, como las cooperativas. No obstante, en otros países como Estados Unidos o el Reino Unido se han desarrollado estructuras mixtas capaces de combinar un funcionamiento claramente mercantil con la consecución de fines sociales, tales como las benefit corporations o las comunity interest companies. La Iniciativa de Empresa Social de la Comisión Europea establece la creación de un marco jurídico más favorable para el impulso de estas empresas. El presente trabajo pretende analizar cómo se ha desarrollado dicho marco en diversos países, describiendo las principales formas societarias que responden a esta necesidad. Dada la situación económica que atraviesa España, un impulso legal desde la administración pública que apoye a los emprendedores sociales resulta de gran importancia, ya que estos empresarios persiguen resolver problemas sociales de forma innovadora y eficiente.”
Michael Prince. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research/Revue canadienne de recherche sur les OSBL et l’économie sociale, volume 5, number 1, pages 6-20, Spring/Printemps 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article examines the labour force participation of working-age adults with disabilities, and proposes nonprofits and community agencies as sites for employing disabled Canadians. It documents employment trends over the last 15 years and how they compare to those for people without disabilities. The employment reform agenda of the Canadian disability movement is outlined as two broad approaches: distributional improvements and structural innovations. Inclusive and gainful employment is regarded as an essential part of economic and social citizenship. The challenges of labour force participation for adults with disabilities are then related to recent reports on Canada’s aging population and to Harper government policies on employment for Canadians with disabilities. Finally, it explores applying a disability inclusion lens to the operations of social economy organizations.”
® Co-operative enterprise law. Summer course organized by the Ruralia Institute of the University of Helsinki through its Coop Network Studies Program. August 5th - 21st 2014, in Helsinki, Finland. Deadline for submission: July 31st, 2014. (RECALL)