ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 10, NUMÉRO 2, FÉVRIER 2015

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

Corporate Governance Practices and Outcomes in Social Enterprises in the UK: a Case Study of South Yorkshire

Nonprofit Governance and Accountability. Broadening the Theoretical Perspective

Understanding Control in Nonprofit Organisations: Moving Governance Research Forward?

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

De la Economía Popular a la Economía Social y Solidaria: el Caso de los Recicladores de Base en Santiago de Chile

La diversité des modes d’organisation des associations coopératives : un défi pour l’Union Européenne

L’économie sociale et solidaire au Mexique : évolution historique et perspectives

Coopératives et territoires en France: des liens spécifiques et complexes

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

Rendre tangible l’idéal mutualiste par un indicateur de création de valeur sociale

Mesure de l’impact social, mesure du « consentement à investir »

Evaluation of Social Enterprise Outcomes and Self-Efficacy

Gestion

Management / Gestión

The Social Contract, Social Enterprise, and Business Model Innovation

Raising Capital by Issuing Transferable Membership in a Consumer Cooperative

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Social Entrepreneurship versus Intrapreneurship in the German Social Welfare State. A Study of Old-Age Care and Youth Welfare Services

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

Rising Wages in the Expanding U.K. Nonprofit Sector from 1997 to 2007

L’élaboration de la loi ÉSS du point de vue du mouvement coopératif

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

Social Enterprise in Ireland: The Camara Education Experience

A Pilot Profile of the Social Entrepreneur in the Constantly Changing Romanian Economy

Understanding the Social Economy of the United States: an Emerging Perspective (Book)

AUTRES

Other / Otros

Loin de la subversion et de la transformation sociale: les pratiques de l'économie sociale et solidaire

Public, Private, or In-Between? The Legitimacy of Social Enterprises in the Housing Market

Female Overrepresentation in Public and Nonprofit Sector Jobs. Evidence From a French National Survey

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Nonprofit Competition

VARIA

Concilier démocratie et efficacité économique : l’exemple mutualiste

Les circuits courts économiques et solidaires

ACTES DE COLLOQUES

Conference papers / Publicaciones de eventos cientificos

ACTIVITÉS DE RECHERCHE ET DE FORMATION

Research and formation activities / Actividades de investigación y formación

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

Corporate Governance Practices and Outcomes in Social Enterprises in the UK: a Case Study of South Yorkshire

Walter Mswaka and Olu Aluko. International Journal of Public Sector Management, volume 8, issue 1, pages 57-71, January 2015.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/
10.1108/IJPSM-03-2014-0048

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to explore the growth of social enterprise in the UK in the context of the renewed interest in the creative use of organisations with a social mission to complement public service delivery. Given the impact of globalisation and increased demands for effective social welfare interventions, this paper specifically focuses on the nature and type of social enterprise governance models and how they influence their outcomes. The study utilises a mixed method approach involving the complementary use of quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The paper finds that the way in which the social enterprise governance structure is designed ultimately influences its outcomes. In particular, those with stewardship governance models tend to perform better than those with democratic models of governance. This leads to a conclusion that in the social context of the UK, social enterprise should aim for a paradigm shift in the design and selection of governance models. Comparative regional experiences in other regions or social contexts could enrich our understanding of whether these results are applicable across the board. This paper is of potential benefit to researchers and particularly those designing policies for the governance of social enterprise. The study employs innovative analytical theoretical lenses not normally associated with the social economy, namely agency, stewardship and resource dependency theories to provide a more in-depth analysis of the governance of contemporary social enterprise.”

 

Nonprofit Governance and Accountability. Broadening the Theoretical Perspective

Tracey M. Coule. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 44, issue 1, pages 75-97, February 2015.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/
content/44/1/75?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Drawing on comparative case studies, this article critiques the positioning of accountability as a benign and straightforward governance function. From a critical management studies perspective, I offer a conceptualization of the relationship between governance and accountability in which issues of power, beliefs about the nature of organizing, and social relations are integral features. The article clarifies how principal-agent governance assumptions, based on a central logic of unitarism, can drive narrow compliance-based interpretations of accountability. Such an approach appears at odds with the values embedded in the social missions of many nonprofits insofar as they prioritize small sections of powerful stakeholders over sustained periods of time. Conversely, a pluralist logic appears to create space for broad accountability to multiple stakeholders. Here, expressive, values-based accountability is seen as a source of legitimacy and can produce complex relationships, which challenge the instrumental orientation to social relations that principal-agent theories assume.”

 

Understanding Control in Nonprofit Organisations: Moving Governance Research Forward?

Terri Byers, Christos Anagnostopoulos and Georgina Brooke-Holmes. Corporate Governance, volume 15, issue 1, pages 134-145, February 2015.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
doi/full/10.1108/CG-06-2014-0072

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of organisational control and both its importance and utility for understanding nonprofit organisations. The current study offers a conceptual framework that presents a holistic view of control, relevant for analysing nonprofit organisations, and a methodological lens (CR) through which this framework can be implemented. This paper suggests that studies of governance should consider different levels of analysis, as suggested by examining the concept of control using a CR framework. This notion has yet to be tested empirically and a framework for examining governance from a CR perspective of control is suggested. Context is highly relevant to understanding control, and thus, this model requires testing in a wide diversity of nonprofit sectors, sizes of organisations and time periods. The literature on organisational control provides useful insights to advance our understanding of nonprofit organisations beyond the notion of governance, and this paper proposes both conceptual and methodological underpinnings to facilitate future research.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

De la Economía Popular a la Economía Social y Solidaria: el Caso de los Recicladores de Base en Santiago de Chile

Michela Giovannini. Euricse, Working Paper no. 73|14, December 2014.

http://www.euricse.eu/sites/
euricse.eu/files/db_uploads/
documents/1417514040_n2605.pdf

Resumen proveniente del artículo: “Las organizaciones de recicladores de base han sido analizadas en varios contextos como una salida a la informalidad y un antídoto a la pobreza de los que trabajan en este sector. El análisis presentado en este artículo está enfocado en dos estudios de caso en el área metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, donde se han analizado dos comunas en las que trabajan algunas organizaciones de recicladores. El objetivo del estudio era entender las dinámicas organizacionales y el potencial de estas organizaciones para pasar de una situación de informalidad, asociada con la idea de la economía popular, a la capacidad de incorporarse como organizaciones más estructuradas en el contexto de la economía social y solidaria. Los resultados evidencian una serie de ventajas aportadas por las organizaciones de recicladores a nivel social, económico, medioambiental y comunitario, y una serie de desafíos que todavía obstaculizan en este contexto el ulterior desarrollo de las organizaciones y el empoderamiento de sus socios.”

 

La diversité des modes d’organisation des associations coopératives : un défi pour l’Union Européenne      

Enzo Pezzini. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/la-diversite-des-
modes-dorganisation-des-associations-
cooperatives-un-defi-pour-lunion

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Le mouvement coopératif en Europe est une réalité très significative, mais avec une faible identité collective et une très modeste capacité de représentation politique. Cette situation est en bonne partie le résultat de l’évolution des organisations coopératives dans les différents pays européens, qui se sont développées de manière très distincte, en mélangeant ou en privilégiant, selon les cas, organisations sectorielles ou intersectorielles. Une rapide analyse de trois expériences nationales nous permet d’identifier différents modèles et leur évolution. Ces analyses nationales nous aident à confronter les parcours et à déterminer des orientations possibles pour l’organisation coopérative au niveau européen. »

 

L’économie sociale et solidaire au Mexique : évolution historique et perspectives

Francisco Ramirez-Mendez. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/leconomie-sociale
-et-solidaire-au-mexique-evolution-
historique-et-perspectives

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « L’ESS présente au Mexique des aspects spécifiques résultant d’une relation complexe entre la réalité socioéconomique du pays, fruit de son histoire, et les politiques publiques qui tendent à agir en fonction des intérêts conjoncturels ou politiques définis par le modèle néolibéral en vigueur. Le processus historique de construction de l’ESS au Mexique peut se diviser en cinq phases, correspondant à des dynamiques qui interfèrent souvent. »

 

Coopératives et territoires en France: des liens spécifiques et complexes

Jean-François Draperi et Cécile Le Corroller. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/cooperatives-
et-territoires-en-france-des-liens-
specifiques-et-complexes

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Cet article se penche sur la territorialité des coopératives. Après avoir présenté quelques aspects des transformations des coopératives et de leurs impacts possibles sur les liens que celles-ci nouent avec leurs territoires, la contribution résume les résultats d’une enquête qualitative menée au cours de l’automne 2013 et de l’hiver 2014 auprès d’une cinquantaine de coopératives dans dix régions françaises. Sont ainsi présentés successivement des facteurs d’ancrage territorial : l’accroissement de la participation à la vie coopérative, la formation coopérative, l’investissement dans le foncier et, dans les grands groupes, l’économie des coûts de transaction et la maîtrise des coûts d’agence. L’article met en perspective l’historique de ces évolutions et propose une typologie de cinq territoires coopératifs qui précisent le concept de méso-république intercoopérative. »

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

Rendre tangible l’idéal mutualiste par un indicateur de création de valeur sociale

Alain Caillé et Juliette Wéber. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/rendre-
tangible-lideal-mutualiste-par-un-
indicateur-de-creation-de-valeur-sociale

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Les mutuelles ne créent pas seulement de la valeur économique. Leur raison d’être est aussi de produire de la « valeur sociale », une notion attractive et polysémique. Nous en présentons une définition opératoire et une proposition d’objectivation, à travers la construction d’un indicateur synthétique de création de valeur sociale (ISVS). Nous suggérons que celui-ci ne devienne pleinement légitime qu’en tant qu’outil de réflexivité collective et que facteur de motivation et dans la mesure où salariés et acteurs des mutuelles peuvent ainsi devenir parties prenantes de l’évaluation de ce qui fait la valeur sociale. »

 

Mesure de l’impact social, mesure du « consentement à investir »

Nicole Alix. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/mesure-
de-limpact-social-mesure-du-
consentement-investir
 

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Le tout récent rapport du G8 nous révèle que le « coeur invisible des marchés » (groupe de travail « Impact social » du G8, 2014) est prêt à investir entre 450 et 1 000 milliards de dollars en investissement à impact social. C’est évidemment une nouvelle intéressante. La recette : disposer, enfin, d’une mesure de l’impact social pour rééquilibrer des décisions d’investissement jusqu’à présent uniquement fondées sur le risque et le rendement. Mesurer l’impact social devient ainsi une nécessité pour déclencher les investisseurs privés et, par extension, une possibilité de justifier le soutien de finances publiques parcimonieuses. C’est le raisonnement qui a été appliqué à partir des années 80 en matière d’environnement : pour que la dimension environnementale puisse être enfin intégrée aux calculs économiques coût-bénéfice, il fallait lui fixer un prix. Il n’y aurait donc pas plus de contradiction entre social et marché financier qu’entre croissance et environnement. On se focalise sur la question des méthodes de mesure d’impact social (Stievenart, Pache, 2014). Il faut aussi poser la question de l’adéquation même de l’investissement d’impact aux entreprises de l’économie sociale et anticiper les effets de la « mise en équation économique » du social. »

 

Evaluation of Social Enterprise Outcomes and Self-Efficacy

Boris Urban. International Journal of Social Economics, volume 42, issue 2, pages 163-178, February 2015.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
full/10.1108/IJSE-03-2013-0071

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Understanding of social values is emerging, particularly as the phrases “social impact” and “social value” and the measurement thereof, are ubiquitous in both practitioner and academic discourse today. These terms are particularly relevant to those involved in social initiatives that are required at some stage to demonstrate to stakeholders, investors, funders, or simply themselves that they have the capability to deliver. The purpose of this paper is to link the evaluation of social enterprise outcomes to individual efficacy beliefs. The study is survey based (165 respondents) and conducted in two major cities in South Africa, where social entrepreneurship (SE) has unequivocal application. Social outcomes and self-efficacy are operationalized and measured along multi-dimensional scales. After checking the instruments for validity and reliability, correlational and multiple regression analyses are performed to determine the predicted relationship between the specified variables. Empirical findings reveal that evaluation of social enterprise outcomes is associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Significant results support the propositions that perceptions of capability are positively related to implementing a social vision, sustainability, social networking, innovativeness and financial returns.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

The Social Contract, Social Enterprise, and Business Model Innovation

Robyn T. Byerly. Social Business, volume 4, number 4, pages 325-343, December 2014.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/
content/westburn/sb/2014/00000004/
00000004/art00003

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to investigate and describe the emerging and various forms of innovative business models, both in non-profit and for-profit sectors, that are either designed towards, or place strong emphasis on, social objectives. This is a conceptual rendering, supported theoretically by the evolution of social contract theory, and by example, considers emerging new innovative business models in light of their role in society, the context of business in society, and in the ways value is being created for both business and society. As issues mount regarding social justice, environmental sustainability, and developing economies, business leaders are recognising that established business models are proving inadequate for emerging circumstances. Nonetheless, it is those circumstances that present an opportunity for a shift in business model, and potentially in social and environmental outcomes (Eyring, Johnson, & Nair, 2011; Kanter, 2011; Porter & Kramer, 2011; Senge, 2008). The examples and argument developed here present evidence that the traditional economic business model of the past, while still rooted in the 20th century, is being augmented and innovated by variations of a newer, more socially driven business model that is responsive to newer realities, pressing social concerns, and to greater expectations of society.”

 

Raising Capital by Issuing Transferable Membership in a Consumer Cooperative

Kazuhiko Mikami. International Journal of Social Economics, volume 42, issue 2, pages 132-142, February 2015.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/
full/10.1108/IJSE-05-2013-0116

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “It is generally recognized that consumer cooperatives are at a disadvantage when raising capital as compared to conventional capitalist firms. The purpose of this paper is to explore a method for consumer cooperatives to issue transferable membership shares as financial securities and raise non-redeemable equity. The author examines if such a method can strengthen the financial viability of consumer cooperatives in the market economy […]. The author found that the amount of equity that a consumer cooperative can raise by issuing shares of membership is greater than the amount of equity that a capitalist firm can raise by issuing shares of stock […]. Consumer cooperatives have many good features that conventional capitalist firms do not have. However, the scale and scope of consumer cooperatives have been quite limited partly because of the problem of finance. The method presented in this paper is expected to improve the financial viability of consumer cooperatives and promotes their activities in the market economy. This paper regards the membership of a consumer cooperative as a kind of financial security and as a tool for procuring capital for investment. As far as the author knows, the present paper is the first one that presents such a concept.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Social Entrepreneurship versus Intrapreneurship in the German Social Welfare State. A Study of Old-Age Care and Youth Welfare Services

Stephan Grohs, Katrin Schneiders and Rolf G. Heinze. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 44, issue 1, pages 163-180, February 2015.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/
content/44/1/163?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Germany is a classic example of a conservative welfare state. The production of social services is characterized by a deeply rooted tradition of corporatist governance, in which the “market” has wielded only marginal influence. Since the late 1990s, these corporatist arrangements have been challenged by the growing pressure for marketization; at the same time, a new discourse on social entrepreneurship and innovation has gained importance. This article examines the empirical impact of the social entrepreneurship movement in two domains: old-age care and youth welfare. We discuss the potential role of social entrepreneurship in these fields and argue for a realistic view of the potential for new actors in established governance arrangements. Our observations lead us to conclude that social innovation has developed not primarily as the result of challenges from new actors but rather from intrapreneurship: social innovations originating from within the established organizational field.”

 

 

POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES

Public Policies / Politicas Publicas

 

Rising Wages in the Expanding U.K. Nonprofit Sector from 1997 to 2007

Alasdair C. Rutherford. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 44, issue 1, pages 123-145, February 2015.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/
content/44/1/123?etoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Since 1997, the U.K. Government has sought to expand the provision of public services by supporting the independent nonprofit sector. With policies to build the capacity of the sector, public spending on voluntary organizations has grown from £2 billion in 1996/1997 to £6.88 billion in 2005/2006. Theory suggests that the comparative advantage of nonprofits lies in the mission motivation of workers, and predicts that motivated workers will accept lower wages. We examine sector wage differentials in time series to show that growth in voluntary sector wages for males has outpaced the private and public sectors, while relative female wages have remained static.”

 

L’élaboration de la loi ÉSS du point de vue du mouvement coopératif

Caroline Naett. Revue Internationale de l’Économie Sociale (RECMA), numéro 335, février 2015.

http://recma.org/article/lelaboration-
de-la-loi-ess-du-point-de-vue-du-
mouvement-cooperatif

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « La loi relative à l’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS), adoptée le 31 juillet 2014, comporte un important volet coopératif. Si les coopératives sont à l’origine de nombreuses dispositions les concernant, parmi ces dernières plusieurs sont le résultat de la volonté du ministre de l’ESS et ont amené ces structures à faire évoluer leurs positions. Cet article retrace les débats internes qui ont animé les coopératives pendant le processus d’élaboration de la loi, ainsi que leurs attentes sur les suites à donner à ce texte. »

 

 

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

 

Social Enterprise in Ireland: The Camara Education Experience

Michele Eccher. Euricse, Working Paper no. 74|14, December 2014.

http://www.euricse.eu/sites/
euricse.eu/files/db_uploads/
documents/1420619004_n2607.pdf

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The concept “social enterprise”, despite being widespread, is still of difficult interpretation. What is certain is that social enterprises bring great benefits to different communities or groups of disadvantaged people by managing economic activities. This paper analyzes the situation of social enterprises in Ireland, being Ireland an example of a country in which social enterprises still do not have a nationally accepted and agreed definition. The first part of this work gives an up-to-date representation of the Irish social enterprise sector, while in the second part Camara Education is presented as a specific case of successful Irish social enterprise. The Camara Education model will be presented, together with the results obtained and the beneficial impact on society it generates.”

 

A Pilot Profile of the Social Entrepreneur in the Constantly Changing Romanian Economy

Gabriela Ţigu, Maria-Cristina Iorgulescu, Anamaria Sidonia Răvar and Ramona Lile. Amfiteatru Economic, volume 17, issue 38, pages 25-43, January 2015.

http://www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro/
RevistaDetalii_EN.aspx?Cod=56

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social economy and social entrepreneurship are concepts subject of much debate in the academic environment, as their importance is growing in the present times, when the public sector and business environment alike have demonstrated their incapacity to solve specific social problems, such as conserving local traditions and biodiversity or insertion into the labour market of people from vulnerable groups. This article focuses on social entrepreneurs, by aiming to identify their main motivations in the founding and development of a social enterprise, as well as the main challenges faced in their social entrepreneurial activity in a constantly changing business environment. The paper presents a qualitative research conducted on Romanian social entrepreneurs. The results, interpreted through content analysis, indicate that social entrepreneurs, unlike business entrepreneurs, are not profit-driven, but mission driven, their main objective being to make a difference in the society and have a positive impact in the local communities. Furthermore, the research revealed specific challenges faced by Romanian social entrepreneurs, as well as specific differences between social and business entrepreneurs, who aim strictly achieving economic performance. Considering the limitations and future research directions, the implications of the findings are discussed, the paper outlining a profile of the social entrepreneur that can be useful to the public sector for the development of policies aimed at enhancing this type of entrepreneurship, in a constantly changing social environment.”

 

Understanding the Social Economy of the United States: an Emerging Perspective (Book)

Laurie Mook, John R. Whitman, Jack Quarter and Ann Armstrong. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 416 pages, January 2015.

http://www.utppublishing.com/
Understanding-the-Social-Economy-
of-the-United-States.html

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: Understanding the Social Economy of the United States is a comprehensive introduction to the operation and study of organizations with social goals – public sector nonprofits, civil society organizations, social enterprises, cooperatives and other organizations with a social mission – under the rubric of the social economy. This text is rich in examples and case studies that explain the social economy framework in the context of the United States. The book not only highlights the differences between these organizations and traditional businesses, but also provides applied chapters on organizational development, strategic management and leadership, human resources, finance, and social accounting and accountability in social economy organizations. The perfect introduction to the social economy framework for students of nonprofit management, business, social entrepreneurship, and public policy, Understanding the Social Economy of the United States an invaluable resource for the classroom and for practitioners working in the social economy sector.”

 

 

AUTRES

Other / Otros

 

Loin de la subversion et de la transformation sociale: les pratiques de l'économie sociale et solidaire

Fanny Darbus. Agora débats/jeunesses, volume I/2015, 69, pages 7-22, 2015.

http://www.cairn.info/revue-agora-
debats-jeunesses-2015-1-page-7.htm

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « En quoi les pratiques de l’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) sont-elles matériellement subversives ou du moins se différencient-elles de celles qui prévalent par ailleurs ? Ceux qui placent leurs pratiques économiques sous le référent ESS sont-ils motivés par un souci de transformation économique et sociale ? Comment se présentent ces intentions ? C’est en s’intéressant aux pratiques économiques développées au nom et au sein de l’ESS, et aux discours des agents qui, par leur travail, les font exister, que cet article répond à ces questions. »

 

Public, Private, or In-Between? The Legitimacy of Social Enterprises in the Housing Market

Anita Blessing. Voluntas, volume 26, issue 1, pages 198-221, 2015.

http://link.springer.com/article/
10.1007%2Fs11266-013-9422-1

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social housing in Western welfare states has undergone change over recent decades, characterised by greater reliance on private actors, market mechanisms and commercial capital. Within housing research, this shift has been described as a linear ‘migration from the public sector towards the private market’, and conceptualised as ‘modernisation’. While empirical change calls for conceptual renewal, the labels we apply to processes of change may limit or enhance potential to understand them. This paper explores the problem of conceptualising change in social housing, focusing on a key facilitator of market-based reforms: the mobilisation of private not-for-profit housing associations as social enterprises in the housing market. It explores their changing roles in English and Dutch housing provision, tracking state policy shifts and debate over their organisational legitimacy for insights into their emergence and trajectories. Contrary to linear ‘modernisation’, findings suggest cyclical movement. Over time, aspects of the work and identity of housing associations shift between public and private domains.”

 

Female Overrepresentation in Public and Nonprofit Sector Jobs. Evidence From a French National Survey