ECO-SOC INFO, VOLUME 9, NUMÉRO 12, DÉCEMBRE 2014

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TABLE DES MATIÈRES

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

Gouvernance et entreprise mutualiste: la légitimité en question

Shifting Control? The Changes of Internal Governance in Agricultural Cooperatives in the EU

Improving National Park Service and Nonprofit Partnerships—Lessons from the National Trail System

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

Are Nonprofit Antipoverty Organizations Located Where They Are Needed? A Spatial Analysis of the Greater Hartford Region

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

The Impact of Board Diversity and Expertise on Nonprofit Performance

Sustainability Assessment and Reporting for Nonprofit Organizations: Accountability “for the Public Good”

Seven Trade-offs in Measuring Nonprofit Performance and Effectiveness

Performance Measurement Challenges in Nonprofit Human Service Organizations

Gestion

Management / Gestión

Position and Performance of Farmer Cooperatives in the Food Supply Chain of the EU-27

Firm-Level Evidence of ICT Adoption among SMEs of the Social Economy in Spain

Success and Failure of Nonprofit Organizations: Theoretical Foundations, Empirical Evidence, and Future Research

Which Leadership Constructs Are Important for Predicting Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, and Perceived Job Performance in Profit versus Nonprofit Organizations?

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

Five Configurations for Scaling Up Social Innovation. Case Examples of Nonprofit Organizations from Canada

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

Social Entreprise Models in Switzerland. An Overview of Existing Streams, Practices, and Institutional Structures

AUTRES

Other / Otros

Ownership status, symbolic traits, and housing association attractiveness: evidence from the German residential market

La politisation de l’économie solidaire par Les Verts. Une rencontre des « autrement »

White Flight and the Presence of Neighborhood Nonprofit Organizations: Ethno-racial Transition, Poverty, and Organizational Resources

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

Farmers' Cooperatives in the EU: Policies, Strategies, and Organization

VARIA

Methodological Guideline for Impact Assessment

Les candidats à des postes cadres dans l’économie sociale et solidaire

ACTES DE COLLOQUES

Conference papers / Publicaciones de eventos cientificos

APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS

Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos

ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR

Events / Eventos

 

 

 

ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES

Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes

 

Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral

Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general

 

Gouvernance et entreprise mutualiste: la légitimité en question

Alexandrine Lapoutte et Christian Cadiou. Recherches en Science de Gestion,  volume 2, numéro 101, pages 175-194, 2014.

http://www.cairn.info/revue-recherches-
en-sciences-de-gestion-2014-2-page-175.htm

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Cette recherche explore la notion de légitimité dans l’entreprise mutualiste. L’enjeu est de contextualiser un modèle de gouvernance et la théorie de la légitimité, afin de l’adapter à l’identité mutualiste. Nous suggérons que la légitimité est différente selon les stakeholders. Un test mené auprès des principales parties prenantes identifie trois groupes bien distincts sur deux points : leur perception que l’entreprise maîtrise son projet et qu’elle contribue à son territoire. »

 

Shifting Control? The Changes of Internal Governance in Agricultural Cooperatives in the EU

Jos Bijman, Markus Hanisch and Ger van der Sangen. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 4, pages 641-661, December 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/apce.12055/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Governance describes a firm´s system of decision-making, direction and control. Over the last decades agricultural cooperatives in Europe have been pursuing innovations in internal governance structures. As a response to changing market environments, cooperatives adjust the size and composition of boards, the labour division between supervision and management and the representation of members-owners. Changes in the cooperatives´ internal governance mechanism are motivated by the need to enhance market orientation, attract professional managers, strengthen member commitment, and reinforce entrepreneurship. We present data on innovations in the internal governance mechanisms of a sample of 500 agricultural cooperatives in the EU. In addition, we present theoretical explanations for these innovations, and we discuss their implications for member control and manager accountability, as well as for performance and further development of the cooperatives.”

 

Improving National Park Service and Nonprofit Partnerships—Lessons from the National Trail System

Ray McPadden and Richard D. Margerum. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, volume 27, issue 12, pages 1321-1330, December 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/08941920.2014.970738#.VIccWtKG8gA

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Federal land management agencies are increasingly relying on collaborative partnerships for managing national trails, heritage areas, scenic rivers, and recreation areas. For agencies such as the National Park Service, these joint approaches are significantly different from traditional management approaches. This article uses a case study of the Juan Bautista De Anza National Historic Trail to identify partnership lessons for this case and other protected areas that rely on public–private partnerships. The research highlights partnership issues with nonprofit capacity and mission alignment, project momentum, and leadership dilemmas. We suggest that agencies such as the National Park Service need to assess the mission and capacity of community and nonprofit groups to determine their partnership approach. This is a significant shift, from agencies simply needing to find organizations willing to partner on collaborative management efforts, to a role in assessing, forming, and developing nonprofit partners.”

 

 

MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT

Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento

 

Are Nonprofit Antipoverty Organizations Located Where They Are Needed? A Spatial Analysis of the Greater Hartford Region

Jun Yan, Chao Guo and Laurie E. Paarlberg. The American Statistician, volume 68, issue 4, pages 243-252, October 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
10.1080/00031305.2014.955211#.VIcbMtKG8gD

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The geographic distribution of nonprofit antipoverty organizations has important implications for economic development, social services, public health, and policy efforts. With counts of antipoverty nonprofits at the census tract level in Greater Hartford, Connecticut, we examine whether these organizations are located in areas with high levels of poverty with a spatial zero-inflated-Poisson model. Covariates that measure need, resources, urban structure, and demographic characteristics are incorporated into both the zero-inflation component and the Poisson component of the model. Variation not explained by the covariates is captured by the combination of a spatial random effect and an unstructured random effect. Statistical inferences are done within the Bayesian framework. Model comparison with the conditional predictive ordinate suggests that the random effects and the zero-inflation are both important components in fitting the data. All three need measures—proportion of people below the poverty line, unemployment rate, and rental occupancy—are found to have significantly positive effect on the mean of the count, providing evidence that antipoverty nonprofits tend to locate where they are needed. The dataset and R/OpenBUGS code are available in supplementary materials online.”

 

 

ÉVALUATION

Evaluation methods / Métodos de evaluación

 

The Impact of Board Diversity and Expertise on Nonprofit Performance

Erica E. Harris. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 25, issue 2, pages 113-130, Winter 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1002/nml.21115/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study examined the impact of board of director characteristics on nonprofit performance. Using data collected through a survey of nonprofit colleges and universities, the author provides evidence that specific board member characteristics are vital in shaping the financial and nonfinancial success of nonprofit institutions of higher education. Results indicate that both board member diversity and expertise are associated with better-performing organizations. This work makes important initial forays into the relationships between board of director qualities and nonprofit performance. Although limited by the relatively small sample of colleges and universities, this study is unique in its ability to analyze nonprofit boards and both financial and nonfinancial performance measures.”

 

Sustainability Assessment and Reporting for Nonprofit Organizations: Accountability “for the Public Good”

Kevin R. Jones and Lauren Mucha. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 6, pages 1465-1482, December 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/
s11266-013-9399-9?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Nonprofit organizations serve the public good by offering services that benefit communities and the individuals who live in them. While many large for-profit companies and a few international nonprofits have begun voluntarily assessing and reporting their environmental, cultural, economic, and social sustainability performance in response to growing public awareness of sustainability issues, nonprofit organizations have generally been slow to adopt the practice. This paper makes the case that nonprofits have an obligation to assess and report sustainability performance to account for their positive and negative environmental, cultural, economic, and social impacts in the communities they serve precisely because of their promise to serve the public good; and that sustainability assessment and reporting are not only possible, but that they can actually offer several practical advantages for organizations that integrate the practice into their missions and models. Several sustainability reporting frameworks are reviewed. Two case examples are presented to illustrate the utility of sustainability assessments and reports for different types and sizes of nonprofit organizations. Challenges to the process of adoption and implementation of sustainability programs in the nonprofit sector are discussed.”

 

Seven Trade-offs in Measuring Nonprofit Performance and Effectiveness

Jurgen Willems, Silke Boenigk and Marc Jegers. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 6, pages 1648-1670, December 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/
s11266-014-9446-1?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “To complement contemporary nonprofit literature, which mainly offers theory-driven recommendations for measuring nonprofit effectiveness, performance, or related concepts; this article presents seven trade-offs for researchers and practitioners to consider before engaging in a nonprofit effectiveness measurement project. For each trade-off, we offer examples and suggestions to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of methodological choices that take various contextual elements into account. In particular, we address the differences between formative and reflective approaches, as well as the differences between unit of interest, unit of data collection, and unit of analysis. These topics require more in-depth attention in the nonprofit effectiveness literature to avoid misinterpretations and measurement biases. Finally, this article concludes with five avenues for further research to help address key challenges that remain in this research area.”

 

Performance Measurement Challenges in Nonprofit Human Service Organizations

Sarah Carnochan, Mark Samples, Michael Myers and Michael J. Austin. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, issue 6, pages 1014-1032, December 2014.

http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/
43/6/1014.abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This qualitative study examines the experiences of four nonprofit human service organizations engaging in performance measurement processes to satisfy accountability requirements and increase organizational and program effectiveness. Nonprofits are increasingly required to respond to performance measurement mandates issuing from multiple sources. However, many of the recommended strategies have been developed in the for-profit and public sectors, and are less appropriate or feasible for nonprofit organizations. Three central findings emerged from interviews, focus groups, and review of archival data. First, the complexity of human change processes and the variation among individual clients complicate efforts to define client outcomes. Second, staff skills play a critical role in effective utilization of data systems. Third, organizational strategies to support performance measurement include incorporating user perspectives into system design and providing adequate staff access to data.”

 

 

Gestion

Management / Gestión

 

Position and Performance of Farmer Cooperatives in the Food Supply Chain of the EU-27

Julia Höhler and Rainer Kühl. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 4, pages 579-595, December 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/apce.12052/abstract

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Studies on cooperatives and cooperative performance have a long empirical tradition. This study provides new data on the multifaceted positions and functions of farmer cooperatives in the food supply chains in eight sectors of EU-27. Cooperatives in this area are facing changes in competition, institutional framework and marketing conditions. What is the significance of cooperatives in the European food supply chains and which positions do they take up? Which conclusions on their handling of the changes can be derived from the development of their functions in the supply chain and which growth and marketing strategies do they pursue? By providing insights into recent literature as well as presenting and evaluating results of the EU-project ‘Support for Farmers’ Cooperatives’, we seek to provide answers on the questions raised above.”

 

Firm-Level Evidence of ICT Adoption among SMEs of the Social Economy in Spain

Glòria Estapé-Dubreuil and Consol Torreguitart-Mirada. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, volume 12, issue 1, pages 16-34, 2014.

http://www.igi-global.com/
gateway/article/108839

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The paper analyzes the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the small and medium-size enterprises of the social economy in Spain, focusing on the ICT-related management of its organizations. Although ICT adoption is increasingly present in all areas of the so called Information Society, the perception of how and why the effective adoption of ICT takes place is relevant to the performance both of the social economy as whole and to their organizations. The authors study shows that the analyzed sample of social economy enterprises has, on the overall, a good ICT positioning in the Spanish business framework. The authors also found few differences on ICT adoption when size or geographical scope of the firms is considered. ICT adoption has been a priority of many social economy enterprises, allowing them to reach a fair level of ICT infrastructures and Internet presence. Furthermore, ICT adoption is seen as an opportunity to enhance their competitive advantage in the markets, mainly through electronic commerce. It is also an opportunity to improve internal management, taking advantage of the integration of electronic procedures.”

 

Success and Failure of Nonprofit Organizations: Theoretical Foundations, Empirical Evidence, and Future Research

Bernd Helmig, Stefan Ingerfurth and Alexander Pinz. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, volume 25, issue 6, pages 1509-1538, December 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/
10.1007/s11266-013-9402-5?wt_
mc=alerts.TOCjournals

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Success and failure of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have been prominent themes in the nonprofit community for more than 30 years. However, since there is no common understanding on success and failure of NPOs, the research field is still fragmented. Drawing from research on organizational success and failure in the for-profit context as a theoretical background, this paper systemizes the academic knowledge on NPO success and failure. By shedding light on theoretical approaches used, empirical evidence on the determinants of these constructs, and the sectors analyzed most frequently in this regard, the paper develops an instructive research agenda concerning studies on success and failure of NPOs.”

 

Which Leadership Constructs Are Important for Predicting Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, and Perceived Job Performance in Profit versus Nonprofit Organizations?

Jens Rowold, Lars Borgmann and Kai Bormann. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 25, issue 2, pages 147-164, Winter 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1002/nml.21116/abstract?campaign=woletoc

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “As an integrative research effort, the present study critically analyzed the relative importance of six leadership constructs—(1) transformational, (2) transactional, (3) laissez-faire, (4) consideration, (5) initiating structure, and (6) leader-member exchange (LMX)—as predicting indicators of leadership effectiveness in the for-profit versus the nonprofit sector. Based on data from seven samples from the for-profit and nonprofit sectors, the unique effects of the six leadership constructs were tested on three criteria of leadership effectiveness on the individual level: job satisfaction, affective commitment, and perceived job performance. The results for the for-profit samples revealed that LMX was the most important aspect for explaining variance in job satisfaction, and initiating structure was most important for commitment. In the nonprofit samples, LMX was the most important aspect of job satisfaction and transformational leadership for commitment. In both for-profit and nonprofit organizations, initiating structure had the strongest unique impact on perceived job performance. We discuss implications for current leadership research and practical implications.”

 

 

Innovation sociale

Social innovation / Innovación social

 

Five Configurations for Scaling Up Social Innovation. Case Examples of Nonprofit Organizations from Canada

Frances Westley, Nino Antadze, Darcy J. Riddell, Kirsten Robinson and Sean Geobey. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, volume 50, number 3, pages 234-260, September 2014.

http://jab.sagepub.com/
content/50/3/234

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Why do so many social innovations fail to have a broad impact? Successful social entrepreneurs and nonprofit organizations often “scale out” innovative solutions to local problems in order to affect more communities or numbers of individuals. When faced with institutional barriers, they are motivated to “scale up” their efforts to challenge the broader institutional rules that created the problem. In doing so, they must reorient their own and their organizations’ strategies, becoming institutional entrepreneurs in the process. This article proposes a contextual model of pathways for system change consisting of five different configurations of key variables and informed by qualitative interview data from selected nonprofit organizations. The authors argue that the journey from social to institutional entrepreneurship takes different configurations depending on the initial conditions of the innovative initiatives. Despite an expressed desire to engage in system change, efforts are often handicapped by the variables encountered during implementation.”

 

 

CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS

Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones

 

Social Entreprise Models in Switzerland. An Overview of Existing Streams, Practices, and Institutional Structures

Michaël Gonin and Nicolas Gachet. Working Paper for the 1st phase of the ICSEM Research Project, July 2014.

http://www3.unil.ch/wpmu/ess-vd/
files/2014/07/ICSEM-WP1-Switzerland-
General-GoninGachet-Final.pdf

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “In this paper, we classify the Swiss social enterprise models taking into account the complexity resulting from three cultural streams, the subsidiarity principle, and a long tradition of loosely regulated and locally anchored social involvement. We identify 11 models of social enterprises that can be categorized into four main groups: the original social enterprises, those referring to a specific conception of the ideal economy, the cooperatives, and peripheral actors.”

 

 

AUTRES

Other / Otros

 

Ownership status, symbolic traits, and housing association attractiveness: evidence from the German residential market

Ann-Kathrin Seemann, Simone Renner, Florian Drevs and Martin Dietrich. International Journal of Housing Policy, volume 14, issue 4, pages 411-426, October 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/
abs/10.1080/14616718.2014.
952958#.VH3i5dKG8gB

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study investigates whether the non-profit and for-profit status of housing associations implies a symbolic meaning and represents an informational cue that potential renters may value. Referring to the stereotype content model, we examine the relationship between renters’ perceptions of the stereotypical dimensions of ‘competence’ and ‘warmth’ of management-related images and, subsequently, rental housing attractiveness. Using a between-subject-experimental design (for-profit vs. non-profit housing associations) in a German rental market context, a sample of 200 respondents was placed in a hypothetical rental offering situation and asked to evaluate the rental provider with respect to stereotypical perceptions. The study results show that the extent to which the management of a housing association is perceived to behave unselfishly and consistently with moral codes (warmth) and is able to bring about one's intent (competence) are positively related to rental housing attractiveness. The results imply that symbolic trait inferences have incremental value beyond the instrumental attributes of a rental offering, such as rental price or housing comfort, in the explanation of rental housing attractiveness. For a citizen-oriented rental housing policy, the study suggests that policy-makers should make reflections on the limitations of privatisation measures and should promote the capacity of public and non-profit rental offers and housing associations.”

 

La politisation de l’économie solidaire par Les Verts. Une rencontre des « autrement »

Vanessa Jérome. Mouvements,  volume 3, numéro 79, pages 148-157, 2014.

http://www.cairn.info/revue-
mouvements-2014-3-page-148.htm

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « Convaincus que les initiatives d’économie solidaire participent au développement soutenable et à la cohésion sociale, Les Verts ont réussi, au début des années 2000, à monopoliser la représentation politique des acteurs de ce secteur. Si ce succès tient en partie à l’inconstance de l’intérêt du Parti socialiste pour cette économie, il repose surtout sur les homologies de (prises de) positions qui lient militants verts souhaitant faire de « la politique autrement » et acteurs de « l’autre économie. »

 

White Flight and the Presence of Neighborhood Nonprofit Organizations: Ethno-racial Transition, Poverty, and Organizational Resources

Eve E. Garrow and Samuel H. Garrow. Race and Social Problems, volume 6, issue 4, pages 328-341, December 2014.

http://link.springer.com/article/
10.1007%2Fs12552-014-9129-y

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “A growing body of evidence suggests that urban neighborhoods of color experience a dearth of institutional resources, including parks and social services. Yet, little is known of how a key process in the creation and maintenance of racially and ethnically segregated neighborhoods—the flight of whites from integrating neighborhoods—influences the availability of nonprofit human services. Drawing insights from the place stratification perspective and the sociological study of residential segregation by race and ethnicity, we develop hypotheses on the relationship between white flight and nonprofit presence, and test them with a dataset that combines census tract data with data on all nonprofit human service organizations in Los Angeles County in 2001 and 2011. Consistent with the place stratification perspective, we find that white flight is negatively associated with the presence of nonprofit human services after controlling for neighborhood structural characteristics. However, the expectation that the negative effect of white flight on organizational numbers is stronger in poor neighborhoods than in nonpoor neighborhoods is not supported. The negative association between white flight and the presence of nonprofits is equally as pronounced in neighborhoods with low and high levels of poverty.”

 

 

NUMÉROS SPÉCIAUX

Special Issues / Ediciones especiales

 

Farmers' Cooperatives in the EU: Policies, Strategies, and Organization

Special issue of the Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, volume 85, issue 4, December 2014.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/
10.1111/apce.2014.85.issue-4/issuetoc

 

 

VARIA

 

Methodological Guideline for Impact Assessment

Ruth Simsa, Olivia Rauscher, Christian Schober and Clara Moder. Third Sector Impact, Working Paper No. 01/2014, November 2014.

http://thirdsectorimpact.eu/site/
assets/uploads/post/methodological-
guideline-impact-assessment/TSI_
WorkingPaper_012014_Impact.pdf

Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This working paper presents the results of a review of existing scientific literature as well as official reports and policy documents on existing impact measurement methodologies and results. Furthermore, it includes the results from literature and from the focus groups with Third Sector stakeholders in the form of a set of consensus impact indicators, both at the micro (personal) and macro (societal) levels. It is part of the project “The Contribution of the Third Sector to Europe’s Socio-economic Development”. Amongst other goals the project aims at assessing the Impact of the Third Sector beyond mere economic data. The aim of this working paper is to give an overview of the existing knowledge on impact and to elaborate a consensus-based set of impact indicators within the following theory-based impact domains: well-being and quality of life; innovation; civic engagement, empowerment, advocacy and community building; economy and human resources.”

 

Les candidats à des postes cadres dans l’économie sociale et solidaire

APEC. Les études de l’emploi cadre No. 2014-60, novembre 2014.

http://www.avise.org/sites/default/
files/atoms/files/201411_apec_
etude_cadres_ess.pdf

Résumé ici de l’URL ci-dessus: « L’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) regroupe les associations, les coopératives, les mutuelles et les fondations. Ce champ représente plus de 13 % de l’emploi cadre en France du secteur privé. Travail exploratoire à dominante statistique, cette étude analyse les profils des candidats qui, en 2013, ont répondu à des offres d’emploi émanant des entreprises de l’ESS. Elle décrit les caractéristiques des candidats qui ont postulé à au moins une offre cadre émanant des entreprises de l’ESS. Et parmi l’ensemble de ces candidats, ont été distingués ceux qui ont majoritairement voire exclusivement déposé des candidatures dans l’ESS de ceux qui l’ont fait de manière ponctuelle. Cette étude révèle à la fois le potentiel de recrutement des entreprises de l’ESS (dans un contexte de renouvellement de leurs effectifs) et permet d’appréhender la diversité des profils et les singularités des parcours professionnels qui amènent à l’ESS. »