ARTICLES ET MONOGRAPHIES
Periodic articles and publications / Artículos y publicaciónes
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
Governance, Boards of Directors and the Impact of Contracting on Not-for-profit Organizations – An Australian Study
Governance in South Korean social enterprises: are there alternative models?
MODES DE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE Financement
Modes of development and financing / Modos de desarollo y de financiamiento
Sentimental Drivers of Social Entrepreneurship: A Study of China's Guangcai (Glorious) Program
Haiti's Caisses Populaires: Home-Grown Solutions to Bring Economic Democracy
Management / Gestión
Engagement Motivations in Professional Association
Managerial Organizing Practices and Legitimacy Seeking in Social Enterprises
Management Models and Priorities in Member Associations. Is Credit Unions’ Community Involvement Crowded-Out?
Understanding and Combating Mission Drift in Social Enterprises
The Impact of Revenue Diversification on Expected Revenue and Volatility for Nonprofit Organizations
La revelación social en sociedades cooperativas: una visión comparativa de las herramientas más utilizadas en la actualidad
Social innovation / Innovación social
Learning Orientation and Market Orientation as Catalysts for Innovation in Nonprofit Organizations
Local Stakeholder Involvement and Social Innovation in Korean Co-operatives: The cases of Wonju and Ansung Cities
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
An Economic Perspective and Policy Implication for Social Enterprise
CONCEPTS ET DÉFINITIONS
Concepts and definitions / Conceptos y definiciones
Social Entrepreneurship and Enterprise (Book)
Other / Otros
"Making Money is not an End in Itself": Creating Meaningfulness Among Employees of Social Enterprises
Motivations of Social Entrepreneurs: Blurring the Social Contribution and Profits Dichotomy
Why do Private Non-Profit Organizations Provide Information on the Internet?
Special Issues / Ediciones especiales
Innovación para emprendimientos en turismo, para promoción de cooperativas y para políticas públicas hacia la inclusión social
Guía de Financiación Europea para Programas Sociales 2014-2020
Contribution à l’analyse des modèles socio-économiques associatifs - Typologie des modèles de ressources financières
For an Economy of Trust in Europe: the Contribution of the Social and Solidarity Economy
International Financial Reporting for the Not-for-Profit Sector
ACTES DE COLLOQUES
Conference papers / Publicaciones de eventos cientificos
ACTIVITÉS DE RECHERCHE ET DE FORMATION
Research and formation activities / Actividades de investigación y formación
APPELS À CONTRIBUTIONS
Calls for contributions/ Convocatorias de artículos
ÉVÉNEMENTS À VENIR
Events / Eventos
Gouvernance et intÉrÊt GÉnÉral
Governance and general interest / Gobernanza y interés general
Mark Considine, Siobhan O'Sullivan and Phuc Nguyen. Social Policy & Administration, volume 48, issue 2, pages 169-187, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article investigates strategic changes in the governance of not-for-profit (NFP) boards in response to Australia's fully contracted employment services system. Of interest are changes in board demography, behaviour, procedures and dynamics, with special attention to the impact of those changes on boards' identity as a representation of community interests. As Australia is in the vanguard of social service contracting, the Australian experience affords insight into the impact of contracting upon the identity of the NFP sector. We find that NFP directors operating in this quasi-market have come to define board ‘professionalism’ as the main strategic move to accommodate the increasingly commercial and competitive nature of contracting. Boards have adopted a more business-like view of how their agency should operate, changed their board's skill set and utilized strategic recruitment processes, including selecting new board members based on perceived skill deficiencies of the current board and paying board members for their service. NFP boards have also introduced more comprehensive induction, training and evaluation systems. These findings provide Australian policymakers with evidence of the cultural impact of service delivery reforms on NFP agencies. They also afford leaders of NFPs an opportunity to reflect on important changes in the governance of their organizations, including the potential for ‘mission drift’ and loss of local forms of legitimacy.”
Marcello Bertotti, Younghee Han, Gopalakrishnan Netuveli, Kevin Sheridan and Adrian Renton. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 1, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Theoretical and empirical research on the governance of social enterprises has grown considerably in the last decade centred primarily on the UK, Europe and the US. Whilst some articles have discussed the role and growth of social enterprises in Asia, the empirical evidence remains scant, particularly in relation to empirical studies of social enterprise governance in South Korea. Drawing upon established literature on social enterprise governance, we tested empirically five conceptual models on a sample of 69 South Korean social enterprises collected through an online survey to identify the prevalent model of governance. Such models were found unable to fully explain governance processes observed. Thus, we used an innovative statistical technique, latent class analysis, which identifies clusters of associations between key governance variables. This exercise revealed two opposite models, centralising and interdependent. The latter represent an interesting shift towards widening forms of participation in governance processes in South Korea.
The sample is small and only limited to some types of social enterprise. More research needs to be done on larger samples including the growing South Korean co-operative sector. To our knowledge this is the first published data available on the governance of South Korean social enterprises and the analysis used to identify governance models (i.e. latent class analysis) is novel.”
Daphne W. Yiu, William P. Wan, Frank W. Ng, Xing Chen and Jun Su. Management and Organization Review, volume 10, issue 1, pages 55-80, March 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social entrepreneurship plays an important role in local development in emerging economies, but scholars have paid little attention to this emerging phenomenon. Under the theory of moral sentiments, we posit that some entrepreneurs are altruistically motivated to promote a morally effective economic system by engaging in social entrepreneurial activities. Focusing on China's Guangcai (Glorious) Program, a social entrepreneurship program initiated by China's private entrepreneurs to combat poverty and contribute to regional development, we find that private entrepreneurs are motivated to participate in such programs if they have more past distressing experiences, including limited educational opportunities, unemployment experience, rural poverty experience, and startup location hardship. Their perceived social status further strengthens these relationships. Our study contributes to the social entrepreneurship literature by offering a moral sentiment perspective that explains why some entrepreneurs voluntarily join a social entrepreneurship program to mitigate poverty in society.”
Caroline S. Hossein. International Journal of Social Economics, volume 41, issue 4, pages 42-59, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Bad governance and corrupt politics have left millions of people disenfranchised. In spite of an oppressive and undemocratic state, poor Haitians have created their own informal groups, cooperatives and caisses populaires (credit union) movements – a testimony to the democratic spirit of the poor masses. The paper aims to discuss these issues. A mixed qualitative study using interviews, surveys, focus groups, ethnography techniques and literature review. Lenders who run the caisses populaires are not class or race biased; they understand how to make microfinance assist the marginalized poor in a society segregated by class and race. Cooperatives and credit unions (called caisses populaires in Haiti) are able to reach hundreds of thousands of people. These lenders one or two generations removed from the people they serve understand their reality and take careful steps and plan in a way to ensure their loans are structured to be socially inclusive. In fact, black microfinance lenders, as well as whitened local elites and foreigners, have a socially conscious philosophy of using microfinance as a vehicle to ensure economic democracy for the masses. In doing this, they take personal risks. The ti machanns recognize these efforts and as a result trust these credit programs.”
Mark A. Hager. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 2 supplement, pages 39S-60S, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This article follows Knoke in exploring how public incentives offered by professional associations (such as lobbying on behalf of collective interests) compete with private incentives (such as member networking opportunity) in promoting monetary gifts, voluntary coproduction of organizational outcomes, and commitment to the association. Olson’s contention that public goods do not motivate civic engagement has fostered several decades of research geared toward establishing the role of such goods in associational outcomes. Based on membership surveys of three engineering associations and two health care associations, the study concludes that private incentives are not universal motivators, while public incentives show some evidence of motivating engagement. Unexpected differences between the two fields of professional association are striking, prompting suggestions that current practitioners and future research give attention to field differences and resist overgeneralization regarding engagement motivations, outcomes, and commitment across professional fields.”
David Sarpong and Clayton Davies. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 1, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of this paper is to explore how social enterprises as an emerging organizational form in market economies acquire legitimacy to attract the support of their constituents and stakeholders. Employing a qualitative case study of ten UK-based social enterprises, data for the empirical inquiry was collected using semi-structured interviews and documentary evidence (e.g. Internet web pages, newsletters, and marketing materials). We found cross sector partnerships, community engagement and capability building and, compassionate enterprise narratives as quintessentially embedded managerial initiatives and practices which give form to the legitimating activities of social enterprises. Proactive investment in the practices identified could help social enterprises to shore up their legitimacy to garner more societal support. In particular, they can draw on their partnership ties to locate, and recruit benevolent co-optees, strategically manipulate their community engagement activities to avoid goal displacement, and employ their compassionate enterprise narratives as an external communication tool to highlight their social objectives to their audiences. The study highlights relevant organizing practices and activities that social enterprises employ to build legitimacy to attract the necessary support, relationships, and investments they require to function and grow.”
John Forker, Johanne Grosvold and Anne Marie Ward. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 2, pages 105S-123S, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Credit unions are membership-based cooperative financial services organizations that are run by and for their members. Historically, credit unions provided financial services for their members and encouraged community development through philanthropy and volunteering. The World Council of Credit Unions (WOCCU), the sector’s global trade association and development agency, encourages the adoption of a management model, coined “new model,” which encourages for-profit financial management practices. The “new model” approach is challenged by some practitioners and academics concerned that it will diminish the community involvement of credit unions. We explore the following research question: “Does the implementation of a management model that promotes for-profit-style financial management crowd out the community impact of credit unions?” We use a dataset extracted from 2,275 annual returns for 188 credit unions spanning 1996-2008, and find no evidence that community impact diminishes as a result of “new model” operating practices, suggesting a crowding-out effect is absent.”
Christopher Cornforth. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 1, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the pressures that can cause mission drift among social enterprises and some of the steps that social enterprises can take to combat these pressures. The paper is conceptual in nature. It draws on resource dependency theory, institutional theory and various extant empirical studies to develop an understanding of the causes of mission drift. This analysis is then used to examine the practical steps that social enterprises can take to combat mission drift. The paper highlights how high dependence on a resource provider and the demands of ‘competing’ institutional environments can lead to mission drift. Based on this analysis the paper sets out various governance mechanisms and management strategies that can be used to combat mission drift. The paper sets out practical steps social enterprises can take to try to prevent mission drift. While governance mechanisms provide important safeguards there is still a danger of mission drift unless active steps are taken to manage the tensions that arise from trying to achieve both commercial and social goals. These strategies can be divided into two broad types. Those that seek to compartmentalize the different activities into separate parts of the organization, and those that seek to integrate them. Integrative strategies include careful selection and socialization, compromise and 'selective coupling'. The paper will be of value to other researchers attempting to understand the dynamics of social enterprises and in particular the processes that can lead mission drift, and to managers of social enterprises keen to combat these processes.”
Walter J. Mayer, Hui-chen Wang, Jared F. Egginton, Hannah S. Flint. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 2, pages 374-392, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “We investigate the relationship between revenue diversification and volatility for nonprofits. Modern portfolio theory suggests that more diversification reduces volatility at the expense of reduced expected revenue. We find that this relationship should not be taken for granted. We use a new empirical measure of volatility that addresses estimation issues of expected revenue, including heteroskedasticity and the omission of the effect of diversification on expected revenue. We also examine the impact on nonprofits of different types of diversification. We find that the effects of diversification on volatility and expected revenue depend on the compositional change in the portfolio. For example, a more diversified portfolio achieved by replacing earned income with donations reduces both volatility and expected revenue, while replacing investment income with donations to achieve an increase in diversification of the same magnitude reduces volatility and increases expected revenue. This suggests other motives for nonprofit organizations to hold investments.”
Francisca Castilla Polo y Dolores Gallardo Vázquez. Revesco, Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, no 114, Primer Cuatrimestre 2014.
Resumen proveniente del artículo: “En el terreno de la Responsabilidad Social (RS) las sociedades cooperativas parten de una situación de ventaja frente al resto de las empresas. El paralelismo de los principios y valores cooperativos y el concepto de RS, nos lleva a plantear peculiaridades de este tipo de actuación social en cooperativas, la llamada RSCoop. Nos centraremos en ella pero de forma más específica el trabajo se orienta a la revelación social o comunicación de la dimensión social de estas empresas para analizar tanto el fondo o justificación de su razón de ser como la forma de llevarla a la práctica. Especialmente revisaremos los esquemas o modelos de informes más utilizados, analizando tanto aquellos que pueden catalogarse como pioneros, el Balance Cooperativo, como los más recientes o actuales, RSE COOP y la Guía Global Reporting Initiative de la Economía Social.”
Sangmi Choi. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, volume 43, number 2, pages 393-413, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The purpose of the study is to review the adoptability of learning orientation (LO), market orientation (MO), and innovation to human service nonprofits by investigating the relationships among these. The study hypothesizes and analyzes the mediating effect of MO in the movement from learning orientation to innovation. The findings based on nonprofit community centers in South Korea partially support the positive influence of LO and MO on innovation, proposing the importance of establishing both LO and MO to facilitate innovations in human service nonprofits. The study suggests implications for practice and future research.”
Sangil Han, Mookwon Chung and Munsu Park. Community Development Journal, volume 49, issue 2, pages 327-343, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “During the past ten years, much attention has focused on the contribution of co-operatives in satisfying the socially relevant needs of communities. The number of co-operatives has voluntarily increased to attract and network local stakeholders as key players in various regions in South Korea. This paper aims to explain how and to what extent stakeholder involvement in these co-operatives has been successful or limited to meeting new socio-economic needs by focusing on two case studies-namely, Wonju and Ansung cities, which are considered to be relatively successful cases. The paper provides a brief overview of South Korea's development of the social economy; the two case studies reveal how stakeholder involvement contributes to social innovation in Korean co-operatives. It is obvious that co-operatives are already embedded in Wonju and Ansung and stakeholder involvement contributes to meeting new social needs in both cities. Existing co-operatives and activists have played a considerable role in bridging public, private, and non-profit organizations as well as in facilitating the social innovation.”
Public Policies / Politicas Publicas
Yoondoo Kim, Seok Yoon and Heongoo Kim. American Journal of Applied Sciences, volume 11, issue 3, pages 406-413, January 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise should be converted into the ecosystem oriented or each business oriented getting out of the labor cost oriented and should emphasize on the follow up management and evaluation. Second, the certification program that bothers the expansion of social enterprises should be changed. That is, the government should change a policy into the direction that leaves the activities of social enterprise to the market function while easing the criteria of certification. Only by this, can more activities and job creation effects of social enterprise be expected. Third, the directions of governmental policies related to social entrepreneur fostering should be corrected and complemented. To resolve this so called problem, a standard model including the policy of standardized programs and contents for each business, type and local autonomous entity needs to be suggested. The educational programs and contents composed of such a standard model can enhance the professionalism and efficiency in social entrepreneur fostering. Finally the concept of social economy is needed to be more wide spread. That is, as a base of social enterprise activity, systematic and professional educational programs through university or graduate school are required. In Korea, for social enterprise to develop, excessive governmental involvement in the market should decrease. That is, the certification requirement for social enterprise should be eased much and a direct support for social enterprise should be converted into an indirect support method, which enables more activities of social enterprise and higher job creation effect. In the long term, social entrepreneurs should be fostered to enhance professionalism and efficiency so that social enterprise can have competitiveness.”
Heather Douglas and Suzanne Grant. Tilde Publishing and Distribution, 350 pages, March 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “Social Entrepreneurship and Enterprise: Concepts in Context would be of interest to anyone working in the fields of social science, marketing, management, and development studies, in addition to those concerned with accounting, design and communications. It would also make an excellent postgraduate resource for students from all disciplines.”
Christian Franklin Svensson. Antipoda Revista De Antropologia Y Arqueologia, number 18, pages 241-255, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The different experiences, motivations and negotiations associated with the social and profit-making dimensions of money are of central concern to the employees of social enterprises. These negotiations become apparent because the social dimension plays a primary role within such organizations. Consequently, it is very important for employees that a balance should be achieved between the two. The meaningfulness of what social enterprises do in expression of their social relations introduces a broader discussion of employees as actors who are embedded within and act across several dimensions and traditions.”
Karla Aileen Boluk and Ziene Mottiar. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 1, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the additional motives, aside from the social interests that motivate social entrepreneurs. This paper does so by using an inductive approach and specifically carrying out a re-examination of two pieces of research examining social entrepreneurship that were carried out independently by the two researchers in South Africa and Ireland. The method used for the paper is a content analysis. Research using qualitative content analysis focuses on the characteristics of language, talk, conversation (Sarantakos, 2005) with attention paid to the content or contextual meaning of the text. Thus, a qualitative content analysis is concerned with an examination of the uses of language. According to Downe-Wamboldt (1992, p.314) the aim of content analysis is "to provide knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon under study". The findings indicate that the informants do have additional motivations with respect to their business ventures including lifestyle motives, receiving acknowledgement and generating profit. Few published papers investigate the motives of social entrepreneurs and explore if there are indeed any additional motivations aside from community interests. The results in this study identify that indeed social entrepreneurs are motivated by an array of motivations. The motivations we discovered in our research illustrates an individual who is mutually concerned with their communities, the environments in which they live in, lifestyle interests, acknowledgement and profit which may suggest that such community contributions could be sustained over time.”
Cynthia Van Hulle and Nico Dewaelheyns. Social Enterprise Journal, volume 10, issue 1, April 2014.
Abstract excerpted from the URL cited above: “This research measures information provision on the internet by private non-profit organizations (NPOs) and provides insight in underlying drivers. This research involves scoring websites of Belgian NPOs on the basis of their information dissemination and applies univariate and multivariate statistical methods to analyse driving forces. It also provides two illustrating case studies. The drivers of internet information provision in our sample organizations show many similarities to those found for for-profit corporations. However, contrary to the latter, NPOs include little financial information and focus on their goals. Furthermore, in line with the notion that insiders-workers may capture the organization, we find that the degree of professionalization has a significantly negative impact on disclosure. Overall, outside pressures as predicted by neo-institutional theory and agency issues are important in shaping communication of information. In fact the two cases indicate that the pressures as predicted by neo-institutional theory may easily lead NPOs to cater to key stakeholders in much the same way as for-profit corporations cater to customers. The results are indicative of general forces driving NPO behaviour. Of interest would be a more in depth analysis to link the prevalence of certain forces to specific governance models and to contextual factors. These findings may give users/visitors of websites better insight into the forces shaping information communication policies of an NPO. This paper adds to the scant evidence on internet information provision by private non-profit organizations and its drivers. As such it offers an opportunity to study the forces that are likely shaping decision making within NPOs.”
Special Issues / Ediciones especiales
Edición especial de la revista Cayapa, año 013, nº 025, Enero-Junio 2013.
Plataforma de ONG de Acción Social, II Plan Estratégico del Tercer Sector Social, 2013.